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Based upon the Ordnance Survey Map with the sanction of the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office. 





The former Presidents of the Committee were — 



Honorary Members 


Mrs. a. a. ALLEN. 

Mrs.J. W.ALLEN. 


The society OF ARCHITECTS. 

The architectural 



M.P., F.S.A. 




theBIshopsgate institute. 










Mrs. CADIC. 

The worshipful COMPANY 

Miss A. G. E. CARTHEW. 

, and Subscribers. 





The board OF EDUCATION. 
Mrs. flower. 


J. H. GILL. 

Mrs. W. H. GODFREY. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir COLERIDGE 

The guildhall LIBRARY. 
Miss M.Z. HADWEN. 


Honorary Members^ and Subscribers — continued. 

The hackney PUBLIC 



The hammersmith PUBLIC 

Mrs. henry HANKEY. 

H. A. HARBEN, B.A., F.S.A., J.P. 

W. J. HARDY, F.S.A. 









Miss HUTH. 



The Rt. Hon. VISCOUNT 







Mrs. LANG. 




W. H. LEVER, M.P. 










The Rt. Hon. The EARL OF 



The Rt. Hon. LORD MONKS- 






The Rt. Hon. LORD NORTH- 

The Rev.J. p. NOYES. 







Mrs. W. W. PHIPPS. 







Sir E. J. POYNTER, Bart., P.R.A., 




The reform CLUB. 

The Most Hon. The MARQUESS 


Honorary Members^ and Subscribers — continued. 

Maj.-Gen. E. H. SARTORIUS, 

V.C, C.B. 


The stoke NEWINGTON 

C. Y. STURGE, Chairman L.C.C. 

Records Committee. 
Mrs. H. B. TAYLOR. 
The Rev. C. TORRY. 

The Rt. Hon. VISCOUNT 


Miss M.J.WILDE. 
J. B. WOOD. 

Active Members. 

*C. R. ASHBEE, M.A. 

*A. H. BLAKE, M.A. 



*F. T. DEAR. 



Professor GEDDES. 







♦CECIL G. McDowell. 








Active Members — continued. 



*Miss E. M. B. WARREN. 

*W.A. WEBB, A.R.I.B.A. 

*A. P. WIRE. 

Editor of the Committee. 
Treasurer of the Committee. 
Secretary of the Committee. 

Denotes those who have co-operated in the production of the present volume. 







PREFACE --------_-- XV 

Paradise Row : — 

South Side — Walpole House -------3 

Gough House -----_-8 

No. 73 Royal Hospital Road - - - - 10 

Nos. 67, 68, 69 Royal Hospital Road and No. i Swan 

Walk - - - - - - - - II 

Nos. 2, 3, 4 Swan Walk. - - - - - 13 

The Physic Garden - - - - - -15 

North Side — Nos. 2a, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7 (formerly) Queen's Road West- 23 

Nos. 14, 15 Royal Hospital Road - - - - 29 

No. 41 (formerly) Queen's Road West - - "3° 

Cheyne Walk — No. i Cheyne Walk - - - - - - 3^ 

No. 2 „ ------ 34 

No. 3 „ ----__ 36 

No. 4 „ __---- 38 

No. 5 „ ______ 42 

No. 6 „ ______ 45 

No. 15 „ ---__- ^o 

Queen's House (No. 16) - - - - - 54 

No. 17, and Don Saltero's Coffee House (No, 18) - 61 

The Manor House, and Nos. 19 to 26 Cheyne Walk 65 

Shrewsbury House ------ 76 

Nos. 46 to 48 Cheyne Walk ----- 82 

Prospect Place (Nos. 62 and 63) - - - - 84 

INDEX ------------ 88 

PLATES Nos. 2 to 94. 




1 . Map of Chelsea, from the Royal Hospital to the Old 

Church based on the Ordnance Survey (1894-6) 

Drawn by 

2. Plan of Walpole House when in the occupation of 

Lord Yarborough. From the Parliamentary 
papers in the Soane Museum. 

3. Drawing Room, Walpole House. Now Ward 7 of 

the Infirmary, Royal Hospital - Drawn by 

4. Chimney-piece in Drawing Room, Walpole House. 

Photo by 

5. Lead Cistern, Walpole House - - Photo by 

6. Garden Buildings, Walpole House. From a water- 

colour drawing in the Guildhall copy of Lysons' 
Environs, erroneously inscribed " Mrs. Aufren's 
[Aufrere's] House." 

7. Gough House from Paradise Row. 

From a water-colour drawing in the Chelsea 

Public Library by 

8. Gough House from the River, 1720. From a litho- 

graph in Faulkner's Chelsea. 

9. Gough House (The Victoria Hospital for Children), 

1908, from the South-west - - Photo by 

10. No. I Swan Walk and Nos. 67 to 69 Royal Hospital 

Road - - - - - - Drawn by 

1 1 . No. I Swan Walk, Front Door - - Photo by 

12. Plan of the Physic Garden (1732) - - By 

showing the new buildings. From an engraved 
copy at the Chelsea Public Library. 

13. Plan of the Physic Garden (175 1 ) - - By 

From an engraved copy at the Chelsea 

Public Library. 

14. The Physic Garden showing two of the Cedars. 

From a lithograph at the Chelsea Public Library. 

15. The Statue of Sir Hans Sloane in the Physic Garden. 

From a water-colour drawing by 

16. Lead Cistern in the Physic Garden - Photo by 

17. North-east end of Paradise Row. 

From a drawing by 

18. Paradise Row from the East - - Photo by 

19. Paradise Row (Nos. 3A and 4) - - Photo by 

20. Paradise Row, Wrought-iron Gate (No. 3A) 

Photo by 

Walter H. Godfrey 

Jessie Godman 

F. J. Sawyer 
H. W. Fincham 

M. J. Rush 

H. W. Fincham 

Jessie Godman 

H. W. Fincham 

Edward Oakley, Architect 

John Haynes 

E. M. B. Warren 
W. Plomer Young 

Philip Norman 
Gilbert H. Lovegrove 
Gilbert H. Lovegrove 

Geo. Trotman 






Paradise Row, Garden Front of East end 

Paradise Row from the West - - Photo by 

Paradise Row, Doorway (No. 7) - - Photo by 

Modern "Gothic" Shop Front, formerly at No. 41 
Queen's Road West _ _ _ Drawn by 

East end of Cheyne Walk - - - Photo by 

Doorway from No. 12, now at No. i Cheyne Walk. 

Photo by 

Chimney-piece from Radnor House, now at No. i 

Photo by 
Photo by 
Photo by 
Photo by 

Photo by 
Photo by 

Photo by 


Photo by 
Photo by 


Cheyne Walk 

2 8 . Nos. 3 and 4 Cheyne Walk - 

29. No. 3 Cheyne Walk, Doorway 

30. No. 3 Cheyne Walk, Hall - 

31. No. 3 Cheyne Walk, Staircase. 

Measured and drawn by 

32. No. 3 Cheyne Walk : — 

Detail of Stairs - - _ _ 

Details of Chimney-piece 

33. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Wrought-iron Gate. 

34. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Wrought-iron Gate. 


35. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Front Doorway 

36. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, detail of same 

.37. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Front Doorway. 

Measured and drawn by 

38. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Staircase - From a drawing by 

39. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Fireplace in the Dining Room 

on the ground floor _ _ _ Photo by 

40. No. 4 Cheyne Walk : — 

Fireplace in the front room, first floor. Photo by 
Fireplace in the front bedroom, second floor. 

Photo by 

41. No. 5 Cheyne Walk, Wrought-iron Gates. Photo by 

42. No. 5 Cheyne Walk, Wrought-iron Gates. 

Measured and drawn by 

43. No. 5 Cheyne Walk, Staircase. 

Measured and drawn by 

44. No. 5 Cheyne Walk, Lead Vase. 

Measured and drawn by 

45. Portrait of Doctor Bartholomew Dominiceti. 

From an engraving kindly lent by 

46. No. 6 Cheyne Walk - - - - Photo by 

Ernest Godman 
Gilbert H. Lovegrovc 
Gilbert H. Lovegrove 

Ernest A. Mann 
A. P. Wire 

A. P. Wire 

A. P. Wire 

A. P. Wire 

W. Plomer Young 

Frederick J; Sawyer 

Frank T. Dear 

Geo. Trotman 
Geo. Trotman 

H. W. Fincham 

F. R. Taylor 
F. R. Taylor 

Cecil G. MacDowell 
Bertha Newcombe 

Geo. Trotman 

A. H. Blake 

A. H. Blake 
A. H. Blake 

W. A. Webb 

Frank T. Dear 

Frank T. Dear 

Mrs. Domenichetti 
H. W. Fincham 



47. No. 6 Cheyne Walk - Plan measured and drawn by Edwin Gunn and 

E. Brantwood Muff 

48. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Gate and Railing - Photo by F. R, Taylor 

49. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Gate and Railing. 

Measured and drawn by F. R. Taylor 

50. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Front Doorway. 

From a drawing by Bertha Newcombe 

51. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, View from the Garden. 

Photo by H. W. Fincham 

52. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Garden Entrance - Photo by H. W. Fincham 

53. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Stairs and Hall - Photo by H. W. Fincham 

54. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Hall - - - Photo by H. W. Fincham 
§^. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Staircase - From a drawing by Bertha Newcombe 
^6. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Staircase. 

Measured and drawn by E. Brantwood Muff 

57. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Dining Room - Photo by H. W. Fincham 

58. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, on the First Floor Landing 

showing Iron Grille _ _ _ Photo by H. W. Fincham 

59. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Iron Grille. 

Measured and drawn by Edwin Gunn 

60. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Wood Grille, first floor. 

Photo by H. W. Fincham 

6 1 . No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Staircase from first floor. 

Photo by H. W. Fincham 

62. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Lead Rain-water Head with 

Coat of Arms _ _ _ _ Photo by H. W. Fincham 

63. No. 6 Cheyne Walk, Lead Cistern - Photo by H. W. Fincham 

64. No. 1 5 Cheyne Walk - _ _ - Photo by A. P. Wire 

65. No. 15 Cheyne Walk, Wrought-iron Gates. 

Measured by C. J. Bathurst 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten 

66. No. 1 5 Cheyne Walk, Front Door - Photo by A. P. Wire 

67. Queen's House ----- Photo by F. R. Taylor 

68. Queen's House, Wrought-iron Gate and lower part 

of house ----- Photo by A. P. Wire 

69. Queen's House, Gate and Railings. 

Measured and drawn by Edmund L. Wratten and 

Walter H. Godfrey 

70. Queen's House, Wrought-iron Gate - Photo by F. R. Taylor 

71. Queen's House, Wrought-iron Gate. 

Measured and drawn by Edmund L. Wratten and 

Walter H. Godfrey 


72. Queen's House, Garden Front 

73. Queen's House, Hall from Dining Room 

74. Queen's House, Drawing Room - 

75. Queen's House, Passage, first floor 

76. Queen's House, Spiral Stair 

77. Queen's House, Spiral Stair, detail 

78. Queen's House : — 

Mask from Monogram Railing 
Monogram Railing _ _ _ 

79. Queen's House, Railing to Steps - 

80. Nos. 17 and 18 Cheyne Walk 

81. Don Saltero's as a tavern _ _ _ 

82. Nos. 19 to 26 Cheyne Walk, View from the West. 

Photo by 

83. No. 20 Cheyne Walk : — 

Carving over door 

Lead Cistern _ _ _ 

84. No. 20A Cheyne Walk, Staircase - 

85. No. 25 Cheyne Walk, Doorway - 

86. Shrewsbury House. From a wash drawing in the 

Guildhall copy of Lysons' Environs. 

87. Shrewsbury House. 

From an engraving in the Chelsea Public Library 

from a drawing by 

88. Shrewsbury House, Old Buildings from Cheyne 

Walk ------ Photo by 

89. Shrewsbury House, backs of same and of Nos. 46-48 

Cheyne Walk _ _ - _ Photo by 

90. Shrewsbury House, Panelling. 

Measured and drawn by 

91. Nos. 59 to 63 Cheyne Walk (Prospect Place). From 

a lithograph in the Chelsea Public Library. 

92. Nos. 59 to 63 Cheyne Walk (Prospect Place). From 

an early photo, Chelsea Public Library. 

93. Nos. 62 and 63 Cheyne Walk - - Photo by 

94. No. 62 Cheyne Walk, Fireplace - - Photo by 

Photo by 
Photo by 
Photo by 
Photo by 
Photo by 
Photo by 

Photo by 
Photo by 

Photo by 

Photo by 

Photo by 

Photo by 
Photo by 

Photo by 

Photo by 

F. R. Taylor 
Frederick J. Sawyer 
Frederick J. Sawyer 
Horace Dan 
Frederick J. Sawyer 
Horace Dan 

Ernest Godman 
Ernest Godman 

Ernest Godman 

W. Plomer Young 


A. P. Wire 

F. R. Taylor 
F. R. Taylor 

A. H. Blake 

A. H. Blake 

Edward Ward 
A. P. Wire 
A. P. Wire 
Percy W. Lovell 

A. H. Blake 
A. H. Blake 



1. Walpole House, Plan. Drawn by Walter H. Godfrey from Sir John Soane's 

plans in the Soane Museum - - - _ _ _ __ 

2. No. 15 Royal Hospital Road, Doorway, Photo by W. P. Young 

3 . No. 3 Cheyne Walk, Second floor plan. Measured and drawn by Frank T. Dear 

4. No. 4 Cheyne Walk, Ground floor plan^ 

5. » » First floor plan C Drawn by Walter H. Godfrey - 

6. „ „ Second floor plan ) 

7. No. 5 Cheyne Walk, Second floor plan. Measured and drawn by Frank T. Dear 

8. No. 15 Cheyne Walk, Detail of Ironwork in Gate. Photo by A. P. Wire 

9. Queen's House, Plan. Measured and drawn by Percy W. Lovell 

10. Queen's House, Monogram Railing. Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten 

1 1 . Shrewsbury House, Detail of Brickwork. Photo by W. Plomer Young 










(of Swithland). 



HENRY VIli. - 

PARR - - - . 

Ory on a fess between two chevrons, 
Salf/e, three cross crosslets of the 

Baronet Per pale, Guks, a chevron between three 
mullets of six points pierced. Or 
(Danversof Swithland). Argent, 
ten torteaux, four, three, two, one. 
In chief alabel of three points, ^zar^ 
(Babington of Rothley Temple). 

- Per pale ( i st), an eagle displayed, imperi- 

ally crowned ; (2nd) a pair of com- 
passes wreathed with a ribband, 
charged with the words de super 
RECTE DATA. In base a dolphin 
rising from a sea. 

- Argent, a cross raguly, Sable. 
France and England quarterly. 

- Argent, two bars Azure, within a bordure 

engrailed. Sable. 


7- SEYMOUR - - - - 

8. DUDLEY- - - - - 

9. GUILDFORD - - - - 

10. CLEVES - - - - - 


12. HOWARD _ _ . - 




16. HAMILTON - - - - 

17. CHEYNE- - - - - 

18. SLOANE - - - - - 


20. CAVENDISH ----- 

21. ALSTON ------ 

Gules^ two wings conjoined in lure, 
tips downwards, Or. 

Or, a lion rampant Azure double queued, 

Or^ a saltire between four martlets. Sable 

GuleSy an inescutcheon, Argent, sur- 
mounted by an escarbuncle. Or. 

Quarterly, Ermine, and Gules. 

Gules, a bend between six cross crosslets 
fitches. Argent. 

Or, a fess chequy. Azure and Argent. 

Or, two chevronels. Gules. 

Argent, on a bend, Sable, three roses of 
the field, barbed and seeded proper. 

Gules, three cinquefoils Ermine. 

Chequy, Or and Azure a fess, Gules 
fretty, Argent. 

Gules, z sword in pale point down, y/r^^w/, 
hilt and pommel. Or, between two 
boars' heads couped at the neck, of 
the third. On a chief Ermine a lion 
passant of the first between two 
mascles Sable. 

Gules, a lion rampant within a bordure 
engrailed. Or. 

Sable, three bucks' heads caboched,y^rg-<?«/. 

Azure, ten estoiles. Or, four, three, two, 

Note. — In the coats of Howard, Seymour, &c., the Tudor augmentations have 
been omitted, the simple family coats being given in each case. The tinctures of the 
Dominiceti coat are not included as the arms are copied from a line engraving. 



WITH this volume the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials 
of Greater London have taken another step in their projected 
Survey of the London parishes. Since the year 1900, when the 
records of Bromley-by-Bow were published, several detailed accounts of 
special buildings have been embodied in the Committee's monographs, but at 
the same time the systematic work of the members, which had been transferred 
from the eastern parish to Chelsea, was not relaxed. To those who do not know 
the difficulties and delays which are necessarily attendant upon the organisation 
of so much voluntary effort, the period of eight years will seem a long one for 
the production of this volume. In this case, however, we have been sadly 
checked by the death of our late Secretary, Mr. Ernest Godman, who was 
taken all too soon from a field of activity in which he had earned the warm 
attachment of all among our little band of workers. One of the chief plea- 
sures in bringing this first part of our Chelsea Survey to a successful issue is 
the consciousness that it forms some tribute to his enthusiasm and unselfish 
devotion to the aims we have in view. 

Setting aside, however, the personal element — the intrusion of which 
may, perhaps, be forgiven in the case of one who is no longer with us — we 
venture to think that the production of avolume like this is no unworthy tribute 
to the place itself, to Chelsea, and in a larger sense to London, which has ab- 
sorbed so many of the beautiful villages that used to lie a long distance from its 
busy streets and its houses of commerce. Chelsea had its own peculiar posi- 
tion among these villages, a position, perhaps, of preeminence due to the natural 
beauty of its site and to the broad and easy thoroughfare of the Thames, which 
was, of olden time, the London highway. For evidence of this we have only 
to scan the long list of distinguished men who have lived here since Sir Thomas 
More chose it as a place of retirement, even while he held the office of Lord 

The melancholy departure of the gay and picturesque river traffic, and the 
development of the roads, notably the King's Road, have together inverted, as 
it were, the whole parish ; they have drawn the busy life away from the waterside, 
and through this very neglect, have preserved for us much of the old village 
until the crowning misfortune befel — the making of the embankment. Yet, 
in spite of calamitous changes, the Chelsea of to-day possesses many relics of 
its past beauty, and some of these are recorded in the following pages. To 
live here, as the writer has done, not far from the Old Church and the river, is 
to understand how strong its hold can still be upon the affections — it is borne 
in upon one, intimately and irresistibly. The story of its illustrious men and 
women may kindle the imagination, but it is its atmosphere — the subtle effect 
of its history — that will be felt most. Chelsea is responsive to one's moods ; it 
is a place where one cannot remain long a stranger, for it takes one into its 
confidence, as do all places which have been the scene of centuries of human 
effort, tempered by just such a quiet unchanging influence as that of the broad 
river which flows still, as it used to flow, by the time-worn village street. It is 

b XV 

this atmosphere that makes Chelsea what it is, in spite of the loss of its ancient 
palaces, its low river-wall, its river-stairs, boats and summer-houses, and 
many of its most beautiful rows of humbler homes. 

This first volume of our Survey of Chelsea, includes all that part of the 
parish looking towards the river, which lies between the Royal Hospital on the 
east and the Old Church on the west. The buildings are, in the main, of 1 8th 
century date, or a few years older, and they owe their existence chiefly to two 
events in Chelsea history. The one, the completion of the Royal Hospital in 
1 69 1, whence sprang Paradise Row ; and the other, the purchase of the Manor 
by Sir Hans Sloane, which gave us the charming houses in Cheyne Walk. But 
if most of our illustrations are of the architecture of the i8th century, there is 
much to lead our thoughts back to still earlier years, and the trees and walls 
of the Manor House garden, and the remains of the house and precincts of 
the Earls of Shrewsbury, afford sufficient excuse for a brief outline of their 
history. The palace of the Bishops of Winchester, however, which lay between 
these houses, is entirely gone, and is not therefore included. 

This is the proper place to remind those who are imperfectly acquainted 
with our Survey work that the chief object of these books is to illustrate by photo- 
graphs and drawings all that is of special historic or aesthetic value in the districts 
surveyed. The subjects illustrated are briefly described in the letterpress, and 
as much historical information as could be placed within the slender compass 
of our space has been added in the form of notes. For the biographies of 
such personalities as the Duchess of Mazarin, Sir Robert Walpole, Sir Francis 
Windham and Dean Atterbury — to mention one or two names at random — 
the reader is referred to other sources, but where less known names have 
occurred we have included some few biographical details whenever possible. 
The text, however, must be understood to be subservient to the plates, which 
actually constitute our Survey of Chelsea. 

In arranging the notes my thanks are due to many friends who have been 
most kind in their assistance. I should like to acknowledge more particularly 
my indebtedness to Mr. Randall Davies, Mr. J. Henry Quinn, and to Mr. Walter 
L. Spiers. The thanks of the Committee are due to Mr. William Ascroft, who 
generously placed some MS. notes on the district at their disposal, extracts 
from which have been duly acknowledged wherever they occur. Much in- 
formation has been obtained through the kindness of the owners of the various 
houses, and this co-operation in the work of the Committee has been highly 
appreciated. Every facility was accorded the author in his research work in 
the rate-books at the offices of the Chelsea Board of Guardians, in which he was 
materially helped by Mr. Percy W. Lovell ; and the Chelsea Public Library has 
been the source of much valuable information, besides adding to the illustrations 
from its excellent gallery of local views. It is scarcely necessary to do more 
than mention the indebtedness which every writer on Chelsea must feel to 
those who have made the local history their special study. In some instances 
it has been possible to correct their statements as the result of later research, 
but in a very much larger measure they have ministered to us. Such help is 
acknowledged by the bibliographical references. 


The illustrations (with the exception of a few early photographs, prints, 
and lithographs) are by members of the Active Committee. The engraving of 
Dr. Bartholomew Dominiceti has been kindly lent for reproduction by 
Mrs. Domenichetti, whose family is allied to that of the Chelsea doctor. 

In conclusion, my thanks are specially due to Mr. Philip Norman, our 
general editor, who has placed his collection of material relating to Chelsea 
unreservedly at the disposal of the Committee, and has spared no pains to make 
the volume a representative unit of the greater Survey of London. 


1 1 Carteret Street 
Queen Anne's Gate, S.W. 






Ground landlord, etc. 
The Crown. 

General description and date of structure. 

Walpole House was the first residence west of the Royal Hospital, on 
the south side of Paradise Row. The whole of the external appearance of the 
present building is from the design of Sir John Soane, and dates from 1810, 
with the exception of the south-west extension, which has been made since. Sir 
John Soane, as resident architect or, as he was called, "clerk of the works " to 
the Royal Hospital, converted Walpole House into a new Infirmary for the pen- 
sioners, and he has left in his museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields several interesting 
plans and sketches showing how this was done. The plan of the house, then 

NrifAf<ce U*r£j 

5 T A B L E. 3 



* Note. — The Royal Hospital is numbered L in the Survey of Chelsea, and will be treated in 
a separate volume. 


known as Lord Yarborough's, shows a long rambling building without any very 
coherent arrangement. The front entrance was in the court of the Hospital 
stable yard, which extended further west than the present stables, rebuilt by 
Soane, and was approached through a gateway, not in Paradise Row itself but in 
an extension of Smith Street, now within the gates of the Hospital. At that 
time Paradise Row stopped short at the great court of the Hospital (Burton's 
Court) and carriages had to turn to the left along Smith Street and so by the 
King's Road to Westminster. It is curious that a house of the importance 
of Walpole House should have had its principal entrance in the stable yard ; 
the fact, however, is quite clear from the Soane drawings, and we read in 
Lysons that " Sir Robert Walpole became possessed of a house and garden in 
the stable yard, Chelsea." The principal part of the building probably dated 
back to 1690 when the site was first leased from the Crown, but it is almost 
certain that Walpole made alterations or additions to it. Lysons says that " he 
improved and added to the house, considerably enlarged the gardens by a pur- 
chase of some land from the Gough family, built the octagon summer-house 
at the end of the terras and a large greenhouse where he had a fine collection 
of exotics." Faulkner prints a letter from Sir John Vanbrugh to Walpole at 
Chelsea in which he signs himself " your most humble architect." The letter 
is dated October 27, 1725, and contains the following sentence : " I have made 
an estimate of your fabrick, which comes to ;^270 ; but I have allowed for doing 
some things in it in a better manner than perhaps you will think necessary; so 
that I believe it may be done to your mind for ;^200." The letter does not 
describe the work in hand, but it establishes the fact that Walpole employed 
Vanbrugh as architect, and it is possible that he designed both the additions to 
the house and the garden buildings. Of the latter nothing now remains. The 
beautiful summer-houses on the river wall were destroyed when the embank- 
mentwas made in 1876, and Lysons himself recorded the loss of the greenhouse 
which adjoined the west end of the house " some years ago." The octagonal 
summer-house which, with its quaint little pillared porch, figures in so many 
views of the Royal Hospital, held at one time Bernini's statue of Neptune 
which Sir Joshua Reynolds brought from the Villa Negroni at Rome and which 
had passed into the hands of iMr. George Aufrere,the father-in-law of the Earl of 
Yarborough, both of whom occupied Walpole House. There was another building 
in Walpole's garden which should be mentioned, that marked "Pavilion" on 
the plan (Plate 2) next to the "Whitster." The garden adjoined the laundry 
and airing grounds of the Hospital, and these two buildings once formed the 
residence of the " Whitster " or laundress.* But since the western portion 
projected into Walpole's garden it appears that it was granted to him for his 
own use, and further accommodation was provided for the laundry on the 
Hospital side.f When the southernmost portion of the garden was leased in 
1 8 10 to Colonel Gordon for the building of the present Gordon House he 
pulled down Walpole's pavilion, and Sir John Soane had several sketches made 

* The office seems to have pertained to the male sex, for we find Mr. Rhodolphus Huguenin 
as whitster in 1748. — Fide Chelsea rate-books. 

I Fide Papers laid before the House of Commons regarding the New Infirmary, 18 10. 


in water-colour of the remaining part of the building, which are preserved in 
the Soane Museum. From these it appears that the Whitster's house was 
quite an attractive little building with all the characteristics of Wren's design. 
It had a covered verandah with twin columns and being so near to the river 
must have formed a delightful summer-house, probably much in use owing to 
the fact that Walpole House itself was quite hidden away, and could scarcely 
have boasted any prospect of the Thames. It seems that the original drawing 
in the Guildhall copy of Lysons, which purports to be of Walpole House (Plate 6) 
is really of this building, which from its important position might easily be 
mistaken for the house, but if so it had undergone some alteration, or the 
drawing may not be altogether accurate. 

Of the house as inhabited by Walpole, we have no views. Soane's 
sketches of the Clerk of Works' house which stood between it and Paradise 
Row do not throw any light upon it, although there are drawings of that part 
of the stable yard which faced Walpole's front door. There is, however, in the 
Soane collection, an interesting album of sketches, made by the architect's 
pupils, of the new Infirmary buildings in course of erection, and it is there that 
we have to look for any sign of the old house. It is evident from the drawings 
that in order to make way for the new building it was at first dismantled, with 
the exception of the extreme southern wing, which was left untouched until the 
work was approaching completion. This is the wing that Soane incorporated 
in his Infirmary and which tradition has called Sir Robert Walpole's Drawing- 
room — now known as Ward 7. From the sketches we can see that the wing was 
two storeys in height and was roofed with a gable, treated as a pediment, and 
turned towards the garden to face south-west, having on this side six windows, 
three on each floor. The chimney stack was in the position of the present fire- 
place on the south-east wall, and there were no windows on that side, since it 
overlooks the " drying ground " of the Hospital laundry. From the general 
appearance it seems almost certain that this wing was an addition of Sir Robert 
Walpole's, and that it was designed by Sir John Vanbrugh ; the evidence of 
the interior of the present ward confirms this view. It is a large and lofty room, 
measuring about 32 by 24 feet, of thoroughly Georgian character, except for 
the windows which introduce a somewhat unwelcome feeling of modernity. The 
sketch on Plate 3 shows it in use as part of the Infirmary. The heavily-moulded 
plaster ceiling and the marble mantelpiece, with its well-proportioned mouldings, 
indicate an earlier hand than that of Soane, and are not inconsistent with 
Vanbrugh's design, and they were evidently preserved with some care during 
the alterations. It is not certain that the chimney-piece was originally in this 
room, as the plans show that the fireplace opening was rebuilt ; but there would 
have been no object in inserting a mantel of earlier and different character if it 
were not already in the house. Soane, of course, cased the outside walls in new 
brickwork and altered the windows to match his general design, but in other 
respects he left the room as he found it. 

A glance at the plan on page 3 will show how far the new building 
covered the site of the old, and wherever feasible Soane has incorporated the old 
brickwork in the walls of the Infirmary. The basement, indeed, was largely 


unaltered, and in this portion some 17th century brickwork may still be traced. 
Here is perhaps one of the most interesting relics of Walpole's tenancy, in the 
shape of a fine lead cistern (Plate 5) bearing his initials " R.W." and the date 
" 1 72 1," the year when the house was being prepared for him. The cistern is 
still in use and may possibly be in its original position. In the Soane collection 
of views already cited there is one showing a fine lead tank in use for supplying 
the bricklayers with water for their work, but this does not seem to have been 
the one which is left as it is shown with three moulded panels instead of two. 
But the Royal Hospital is very rich in lead cisterns, and it is possible the one 
used by the builders did not belong to the house. 

Condition of repair. 

The building is in the care of H.M. Office of Works and is in excellent repair. 


Historical notes. 

When the Royal Hospital was built at Chelsea certain portions of land acquired for 
the new institution were leased, in the east to the Earl of Ranelagh and in the west to 
William Jephson, Secretary to the Treasury. The latter obtained about \\ acres, which 
extended from Paradise Row to the River Thames. Towards the road, however, the 
frontage was much reduced by the Hospital stable yard, which took up most of the 
width. The plot was irregularly shaped, being very narrow for about half its depth, owing 
to the intrusion of the Hospital laundry and drying grounds on the north-east. It had 
its greatest width upon the river and adjoined the land sold later to the Earl of Carbery 
on the south-west. Here was built the house which later became the home of Sir Robert 
Walpole, and portions of which still exist in the Hospital Infirmary. 

It is presumed that William Jephson built the house when he acquired a lease of the 
land for 61 years, in or about the year 1690. His widow married Sir John Aubrey, Bart., 
and transferred the lease to Charles Hopson, who in his turn passed it to Edward Russell, 
Earl of Orford, July loth, 1696. His tenancy continued (according to the rate-books) 
until 171 1. From 17 14 to 1719 Sir Richard Gough lived here, having already, perhaps, 
acquired the adjoining property of the Earl of Carbery, who had died in 1713 \see Gough 
House). He is assessed for the poor rate at ;^8o, a figure which would more than cover 
that of the two houses. 

According to Lysons Sir Robert Walpole came to the house "about the year 1722," 
and, considering the date on the lead cistern (172 i), it is probable that he resided here 
quite as early as this, although other writers have made it later. Walpole lived in Chelsea 
during the summer months until 1745, and both Lysons and Faulkner agree that he added 
to the gardens by a purchase of land from his neighbours the Gough family. It seems that 
Walpole was only a tenant up to the year 1730 when he purchased the lease from Thomas 
Ripley, to whom it had been granted for 50 years a few days previously. The history of 
Walpole's residence here, of the visitors he had, of the entertainment of Queen Caroline, 
who dined in the celebrated greenhouse, of Lady Walpole's grotto, and of Horace Walpole's 
allusions to " my poor favourite Chelsea " in his writings, has been told by such Chelsea 
historians as Mr. Alfred Beaver and Mr. Reginald Blunt with much careful detail. In 
his retirement, as Earl of Orford, Walpole lived here till his death, March i8th, 1745. 
John Ranby, the surgeon to the Hospital, attended him during his illness, writing after- 
wards an account of it, which was published. 

From a letter of Horace Walpole's in 1 746 it appears that the Duke of Newcastle 
was living here, but we find in i 748 that the Earl of Orford is still rated for the house, 
from which we gather that he had not yet parted with the property, although he had 
just acquired his celebrated residence at Strawberry Hill. However this may be, it is 
known that on October 13th, 1749, Walpole House was leased to John, second Earl of 


Dunmore, Governor of Plymouth, whose name appears in the rate-books from 1 749 to 1 75 i . 
He seems to have let the house to Henry Temple, first Viscount Palmerstone (1754— 1757), 
and to the Duke of Norfolk in 1758. In the following year Mr. George Aufrere, of 
Brocklesby Hall, Lincoln, took over the property (May, 1759), ''"'^ obtained an extension 
of the lease to the year 1825. During his tenancy the house became again celebrated for 
its wonderful collection of paintings and other works of art : Walpole's collection. It will be 
remembered, forms part of the Imperial Gallery at St. Petersburg {vide ".^des Walpoliana"). 
Mr. Aufrere's name continues in the rate-lists till 1800, and in 1801 it is replaced by 
Arabella Aufrere. " Upon the decease of Mrs. Aufrere," writes Faulkner " (September 1st, 
1804) the house came into the possession of the Earl of Yarborough, who married 
in 1770 Sophia, daughter and sole heir of the late George Aufrere, Esq." Lord Yarborough 
lived here till 1808, when the Crown resumed possession, paying him ;^4,775 15s. as com- 
pensation for the unexpired term of the lease. 

On the resumption of the lease by the Crown Sir John Soane was asked to prepare 
plans for converting Walpole House into a new infirmary of the Royal Hospital. Against his 
advice the best portion of the garden, towards the river, was granted on an 80 years' building 
lease to Lt. -Colonel (afterwards General) Sir Willoughby Gordon, Bart., who at once built 
Gordon House. Since the expiration of the lease this building has been appropriated to the 
use of the Infirmary nursing staff, and the further history of the whole property lies within 
that of the Royal Hospital. 

It may be worth noting that the river-wall and two summer-houses were destroyed 
when the Embankment was made in 1876. The official plans, copies of which are in the 
Che/sea Miscellany at the Chelsea Public Library, show their exact position. The last 
encroachment on the site of Walpole's garden took place when the buildings of Chelsea 
Embankment gardens were erected a few years ago. 

Bibliographical references. 

Rev. Daniel Lysons, Environs of London (1795). 
Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 
Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 
Benjamin Ellis Martin, Old Chelsea (1889). 
Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 
Reginald Blunt, Paradise Row (1906). 
Gentleman^ s Magazine, Dec. 1734, Sept. 1804. 
Monthly Chronicle, re Royal Visit, 27 Aug. 1729. 

Horace Walpole, Letters (Ed. Cunningham, 9 vols.), 1891. Letter to Montagu, 
Aug. 5, 1746. 

Soane Museum, Plans, MSS. and copies of Parliamentary Papers. 

Old prints, views, etc. 

* Water-colour view of Summer-house In the graingerlsed edition of Lysons' Environs 
(Guildhall Library, London), entitled " Mrs. Aufren's [Aufrere's] House in the Stable 
Yard, taken from the opposite shore." 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3125. *Plan of Lord Yarborough's house — traced from one in the Soane Museum. 

3126. *Plan of Lord Yarborough's house and garden. 

3127. Infirmary Ward No. 7, Walpole's drawing-room. (Photograph.) 

3128. *Infirmar)' Ward No. 7, Walpole's drawing-room. (Drawing.) 

3129. *Fireplace in Ward No. 7 (photograph). 

3130. N.E. wing of Infirmary (photograph). 

3 1 3 1 . Vaulted corridor under covered walk (photograph). 
3132. *Lead cistern (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, etc. 

The freehold belongs to the Hospital. 

General description and date of structure. 

The house was probably built in the year 1 707, the date of a note among 
the Cadogan papers referring to the grant to John, Earl of Carbery, "of away 
or passage of nine feet broad " and also " a new gate passage entering into the 
garden ground," which were part of premises conveyed to him by William, Lord 
Cheyne. The house was preserved practically intact till 18 66, when it was con- 
verted into a hospital. In 1898 the building was considered inadequate for the 
accommodation required, and another block was built, separated, however, from 
Gough House. The latter was then altered, the bold wooden cornice taken 
down, and the house raised another storey. A new entrance was made to Tite 
Street and the centre, shown on Plate 9, was rebuilt: otherwise Gough House is 
still, externally, very much what it was. The fine 1 8th century brickwork shows 
no sign of decay, and the window openings have not been altered, save where 
stone keys have been inserted on the road front. The house retains the two 
wings which flanked the front door on the side towards Paradise Row, and there 
is still a door in the centre of the south-west elevation, in the place of the garden 
door shown on the old drawings. This door opened on to a beautiful garden 
laid out in broad terraces that led to the river-side where was an iron gateway 
with steps down to the water. The river views show also a summer-house on 
the wall not unlike the octagonal one of Walpole House. This disappeared, 
like its fellows on the old waterside, when the new Embankment was made. 
The interior of the house has been entirely altered and swept of all its original 
features. Tite Street runs now close beside its south-west wall, and few people 
would recognise in this hospital, standing right in the public way, the tree- 
embowered Queen Anne mansion which used to look over its trim walks and 
lawns to the River Thames. 

Condition of repair. 

The building is in perfect repair. 
Historical notes. 

John Vaughan, third Earl of Carbery, who had acquired a fortune in Jamaica, where he 
was made governor by Charles II., bought the property from Lord Cheyne, the lord of the 
manor, in or about the year 1707, the date of the note of conveyance to which reference 
was made above. The character of the architecture suggests that he was the builder of 
the house which occupied a position west of Walpole House, on a slip of land reaching 
from Paradise Row to the Thames. The Earl of Carbery was President of the Royal 
Society. He lived at Chelsea until his death in 171 3. It is supposed that his daughter 



(who married and was deserted by Charles Paulet, Marquis of Winchester and afterwards 
Duke of Bolton) sold the property to the Gough family who gave their name, to the house. 
We have seen that Sir Richard Gough occupied Walpole House from 1714. to 171 9, and 
apparently he it was who sold some portion of the garden of Gough House to Sir Robert 
Walpole. From a comparison of the site with the sketch of the house, dated 1720, in 
Faulkner's Chelsea it seems that he must have moved the garden wall which divided the 
properties several feet westward and at the same time relinquished the little summer-house 
which stood in the angle of the garden, on the river wall. He stayed here till 1726, and in 
1727-1728 we find the name of Lady Gough in the rate-lists. His son Henry, who re- 
tained possession of the property but does not seem to have lived here after 1730, was made a 
baronet in 1728 and married as his second wife Barbara Calthorpe. Their son Henry was 
made heir to the property of his uncle Sir Henry Calthorpe, and took his name. He was 
made Baron Calthorpe in 1796. Calthorpe Terrace, now part of King's Road, derived its 
name from him. 

The evidence of the rate-books shows that Thomas Pemberton, in the service of the 
East India Company, was resident here. The name of George Davis appears 1748 to 
1755. Richard Rogers came in 1758, and from 1772 to 1780 the house is under the 
joint names of Pemberton and Rogers. From 1781 to 1801 the name of Thomas 
Pemberton appears alone and is replaced in 1802 by that of Maria Pemberton. His 
widow established a girls' school in the house, and her daughter carried on the work. 
Mr. Beaver tells us that it was later opened as a boys' school by Dr. Wilson. 

Under the new Embankment Scheme the Metropolitan Board of Works acquired the 
property and the house was bought by the Victoria Hospital for Children. An additional 
block of buildings was built to the south and by 1 903 a larger block was completed towards 
the north ; it now possesses 107 beds. 

Bibliographical references. 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 
Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892), 
Reginald Blunt, Paradise Row (1906). 

Old prints. 

*View of south front (1720), lithograph in Faulkner's Chelsea. 

View of north front (1829), lithograph in Faulkner's Chelsea. 

View of north front, original sketch in Guildhall copy of Lysons. 
*View of north front, original drawing by M. J. Rush, Chelsea Public Library. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3133. View from the south-east (photograph). 

3134. *View from the south-west (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 




Passing Tite Street and going west from Gough House we come to 
Paradise Walk, formerly called Bull Walk, leading from the south side of Para- 
dise Row towards the river. The houses west of this, Nos. 74-71, are built 
flush with the road and belong to the early part of the last century. 

No. 73 is interesting because it still possesses a curved shop front of the 
familiar type that is characteristic of the end of the i8th century, although 
this particular example scarcely dates back so far. 

The projecting window is surmounted by a cornice, with minute and 
delicate mouldings, which follows the curve and extends over the doorway. The 
shop front is not carried down to the ground, but projects over the footway, 
the window board being some three feet high. 

In the committee's ms. collection is — 

3135. View of the shop front (photograph). 



v., VI., VII.— Nos. 69,68 AND 67 ROYAL HOSPITAL 




Ground landlord. 

This property belongs to W. Brindley, Esq. 

General description and date of structure. 

Continuing westward we come upon a block of earlier houses than the 
last-named: Nos. 69, 68 and 67, which brings us to the corner of Swan Walk. 
The first house in this street is also part of the same block of buildings. 

No. I Swan Walk, which stands in a nice overgrown garden, has indica- 
tions of having been first built in the early part of the i8th century. On the 
first floor the two rooms are panelled throughout, the one to the north having 
moulded panels and a fine cornice quite of the best period. The cornice is 
continued round the staircase. The southern room has large panels of plainer 
design. Both rooms have fireplaces, with the original marble slips ; the great 
depth of the chimney stack, allowing for very large cupboards each side of the 
fireplaces, points to an early date. 

A very good lead cistern remains from the original house, having two 
panels of interlacing lines each enclosing the following initials with the date*: — 

W W 

I M ^7^9 I M 

To whom these initials refer we have not yet been able to discover. 

In the 1 8th century, towards its close, Nos. 67, 68 and 69 Royal Hos- 
pital Road were built, and about the same time No. i Swan Walk was remodelled, 
and this may have been the occasion of cementing over the brickwork. Latterly 
this house has been used in conjunction with No. 67 Royal Hospital Road, but 
the connecting doorway is now stopped up. It seems probable that No. 67 was 
built as an addition to the house, as it has only two rooms on each floor. The 
staircase, with its newels 4 inches square, originally surmounted by half-spheres 
(of which one remains on the second floor), turned pendents, square moulded 
handrail and 2|-inch turned balusters, belongs to the latter half of the i8th 
century. The rather elaborate doorway and iron grille in the fanlight are of 
pleasing design. 

No. 67 Royal Hospital Road depends for its interest more on its exter- 
nal features. It possesses a charming window with cornice and a semi-circular 
head, which, however, is not glazed as it pretends to be. The room with this 

* Removed by Mr. Brindley to his house, Eastercourt, Boscombe, Hants (1908). 

I I 


window has a moulded dado rail with a running guilloche ornament — otherwise 
the interior appears entirely early Victorian, having lost any other old features 
which it may have possessed, 

Nos. 68 and 69 are evidently of the same date as No. 67. The colour 
and appearance of the brickwork are identical. The face of these two houses is 
not in a line with No. 67, nor at the same inclination to the road, and they have 
evidently always been separate dwellings. The windows are similar, though there 
is no repetition of the elaborate window above described. The buildings are 
quite unpretentious, but pleasing on account of the colour and texture of the 

Condition of repair. 

These houses were carefully repaired and painted in 1 908 and are in excellent condition. 

Historical notes. 

There have been so many changes in this part of the ancient Paradise Row, and the 
rate-books are so far from explicit regarding the order in which the entries are set down, 
that it is difficult to identify any names with these houses with any certainty. It may be 
noticed, however, in John Haynes' plan of the Physic Garden, dated 1751 {see Plate 13), 
that there is an entrance into the garden near the top of Swan Walk, and exactly opposite 
to it is a gateway which should lead into the garden of No. I . It seems probable that this 
gate was used by the Curator of the Botanic Garden, Philip Miller, whom the rate-books 
place in Swan Walk at this period, and if this is so we may fairly claim the house as his 
residence. Philip Miller seems to have lived in another house in Swan Walk, assessed at 
£6 less in value, from 1733 to 1740. He was Curator from 1722 to 1 771, the year of his 
death. The residents in this house would then be as follows : — 

1 7 1 1 — 1 7 3 1 . William Ambrose. 

1733— 1740. Thomas Abbott. 

1 741-1762. Philip Miller. 

1 763-1 793. Christopher Kempster, junior. 

1 793-1 800. Mary Kempster. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3136. General view (photograph). 

3137. *General view (line drawing). 

3138. Nos. 67, 68 and 69 Royal Hospital Road, general view (photograph). 

3139. Nos. 67, 68 and 69 Royal Hospital Road, another view (photograph). 

3140. No. I Swan Walk, front view (photograph). 

3 141. *No. I Swan Walk, Doorway (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 



IX., X., XL— Nos. 2, 3 AND 4 SWAN WALK. 

Ground landlord, etc. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are the property of W. Brindley, Esq., and are tenanted 
respectively by William Miller, Esq., and Nigel Playfair, Esq. No. 4 belongs 
to Walter Robertson, Esq., and is occupied by Mrs. Bertie Roberts. 

General description. 

The general appearance of these three houses, linking them definitely with 
old Chelsea, has been responsible for their inclusion in our Survey, although 
they cannot lay claim to the possession of any features of particular beauty or 
value. This portion of Swan Walk, with its old-fashioned houses in their ample 
gardens on one side and the ancient wall of the Physic Garden on the other, is 
sufficiently unchanged to be esteemed a precious relic of the neighbourhood of 
Paradise Row. The name of this little street is derived from the Old Swan 
Inn which stood at its south end on the river side, and which was converted 
into a brewery in the i8th century. The inn is mentioned by Pepys (1666), 
and became famous as the goal of the annual watermen's boat race (instituted by 
Thomas Doggett in 1 7 1 5), the scene of one of Rowlandson's sketches, now in 
the British Museum. It was converted into a brewery later on, and another 
inn was started, bearing the name "The Old Swan," on a site on the water 
side, west of the Physic Garden. 

Nos. 2 and 3 Swan Walk are plain unpretentious houses, apparently of 
the middle Georgian period. The latter has been remodelled, but the former 
preserves its square brick front and cornice, although it has been entirely altered 
inside. No. 4 is more interesting. The house is set back some distance from 
the road and has a wide porch with Doric columns. The interior is evidently 
panelled throughout, but canvas has been stretched over the panelling to allow 
of wallpapers. There are some fairly early fireplaces with bold architraves, 
bolection-moulded. The main stair is of late design, but there are some early 
balusters alternately twisted and plain-turned in another part. There is a pretty 
fanlight over the back door. The house gives one the impression of having 
been much altered ; the original building may have dated from the reign of 
Queen Anne. It would be interesting to know the character of the wainscot, 
which is at present hidden beneath the wallpaper. 

Historical notes. 

From a verj' careful examination of the rate-lists we think we are justified in assigning the 
following names to these houses, although the evidence of the lists is not quite conclusive : — 

No. 2. — 171 i-i 71 2, Thomas March; 1714-1718, Sarah Taxsara ; 1719-1735, 
Joseph Windham ; 1 736-1 749, William Whitfield ; 1750, Mrs. 'Whitfield ; 
1 751-175 8, Mary Viscountess Fane ; 1 760-1 770, Christopher Kempster,senior ; 
1 77 1, Mrs. Kempster ; 1 773-1 774, Rev. Richard Woodis ; 1 775-1 782, Mr. 

c 13 


Lowe; 1 791-1792, Mary Pinfold ; 1793, Thomas Mitchell; 1794-1800, 
John Mitchell. 

No. 3 (built 1776). — 1 777-1 794, Edward Read. 

No. 4. — 1711-1718, John BickerstaiFe ; 1720-1721, Mr. Hamilton ; 1722-1723, 
Rachel Hamilton; 1724— 1 725, Sir Thomas and Lady Lolley ; 1726— 1733, 
Charles Waller ; 1734-173 5, Mr. Rogers ; 1 736-1 739, Alexander Blackwell ; 
1 741-1 75 1, Thomas Abbott ; 1 75 5-1 770, John Randall ; 1 771-1800, Eliza- 
beth Randall. 

In the committee's ms. collection is — 

3142. View of Swan Walk, showing No. 2 (photograph). 




(Formerly the Botanic Garden of the Apothecaries' Company.) 

The story of this famous Physic Garden at Chelsea has been told, at 
length, by many writers, but it is worth the re-telling, in however brief a form. 
And even if it had lacked the historic interest which it possesses, the garden 
would have demanded a place in our survey, by virtue of its present interest 
and beauty. Bowack was perhaps a little imaginative when he wrote of Chelsea 
in 1705 : — " This happy spot is likewise blest by Nature with a peculiar kind 
of soil which produceth nine or ten rare physical plants not found elsewhere 
in England, and the Apothecaries' Garden here lying upon the Thames side 
is a clear instance of the opinion the learned Botanists of their Society had of 
the aptitude of the soil for the nourishment of the most curious plants." Aided 
by careful cultivation and constant renewal, the soil in this little plot of land 
has been able to produce — during the 236 years which have seen it in culti- 
vation — a vast quantity of plants, each the subject of curious inquiry and study, 
and the means of adding greatly to the increase in the knowledge of botany 
throughout that period. 

The annals of the garden have been faithfully transcribed by H. Field 
in his " Memoirs of the Botanic Gardens at Chelsea" (1820), and have been 
revised and continued by R. H. Semple (1878). The interesting material thus 
gathered together has been told afresh by Mr. Reginald Blunt in his charming 
book, Paradise Row., and it is to these authors that we must direct our 
readers, not forgetting the pages of the Rev. A. G. L'Estrange in his Village 
of Palaces. The following notes touch lightly on this absorbing subject. 

Under the date of June 10, 1658, John Evelyn has the following note 
in his diary : — " I went to see the medical garden at Westminster, well stored 
with plants under Morgan, a skilful botanist." This is supposed to have been 
an earlier Physic Garden belonging to the Society of Apothecaries, for in 1676 
the Court of Assistants agreed to take the lease over from the tenant, Mrs. 
Gape, in order to remove the plants to their newly-established garden at Chelsea. 
Two well-known botanic gardens existed before this, that of John Gerard in 
Holborn in the latter part of the i6th century, and that of John Tradescant, 
gardener to Charles I., in South Lambeth, established c. 1630. Even before 
this. Dr. William Turner had the care of a botanic garden, early in the i6th 
century, for the Duke of Somerset at Syon House, and when he became Dean 
of Wells he established one at his Deanery. He wrote his illustrated Herbal 
in 1 55 1. At Oxford, in 1622, the Earl of Danby founded the "Physic Garden 
for the improvement of the faculty of medicine." 

The Society of Apothecaries desired, in 1673^ to obtain a suitable site 
for their barge house, and no better could be found than that of the present 
garden at Chelsea. Accordingly, in the same year, they obtained a lease of the 
land from Charles Cheyne, lord of the manor, at the annual rent of £"5. In 



the following year a subscription was raised among 14 members of the Com- 
pany to build a wall round the garden, and two years later the resolution above 
referred to was taken regarding the transfer of plants from Westminster to 

The first gardener, whose name was Piggott, left in 1677, and Richard 
Pratt was appointed in his place, being given lodging and a salary of £2^^ ^ 
year. The garden was already producing herbs for the laboratory, and fruit 
trees were then planted. In 1680, John Watts, a member of the Company, 
became Curator, and in 1682 an exchange of plants was made with Dr. Herman, 
Professor of Botany at Leyden. Soon afterwards, the four cedar trees were 
planted which were to give the garden so much distinction and beauty. They 
were at first 3 feet high, and on measuring the two that remained in 1793, 
Sir Joseph Banks found the larger one to possess a girth of close upon 13 feet. 

On August 7th, 1685, Evelyn writes as follows : — "I went to see 
Mr. Watts, keeper of the Apothecaries' garden of Simples at Chelsea, where 
there is a collection of innumerable varieties of that sort ; particularly, besides 
many rare annuals, the tree bearing Jesuits' bark, which has done such wonders 
in quartan agues. What was very ingenious was the subterraneous heat, con- 
veyed by a stove under the conservatory, all vaulted with brick, so as he has 
the doores and windowes open in the hardest frosts, secluding only the snow." 
There is preserved in the 12th volume oi Archaologia a description of the 
garden in 1 691, copied from an original MS. in the possession of the Rev. Dr. 
Hamilton, vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, in which allusion is made 
to " the perennial green hedges and rows of different coloured herbs," and to 
*' the banks set with shades of herbs in the Irish stitch-way." 

Mr. Samuel Doody, a member of the Company, became curator in 1693. 
His name occurs in the rate-books as the representative of the Apothecaries, 
until the year of his death in 1706. He was a well-known naturalist and 
earned the praise of Ray in his "Synopsis." He became a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1695. About this time there was much searching of heart among 
the members of the Society of Apothecaries as to whether they could really 
afford the heavy annual charge which the garden laid upon them. They had 
made great sacrifices in a public cause, and their public spirit has been rightly 
praised. There were, however, many periods of doubt and perplexity. A com- 
mittee was formed on which James Petiver served as their leading member, 
but the deliberations of this body did not produce any definite results. Petiver 
died in 171 8, six years after the purchase of the manor by Sir Hans Sloane. 
He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and had made a large collection ot 
natural specimens, which was bought by Sloane after his death. Ray refers to 
him as " non postremae notae botanicus, mei amicissimus." 

By this time Sir Hans Sloane had become well acquainted with the 
position of affairs at the Chelsea garden, and in 1722 he generously conveyed 
the land to the Society of Apothecaries, in the form of a perpetual lease at the 
yearly rental of ;^5, as long as they preserved it to its original purpose as a 
botanic garden, and on the further condition of presenting to the Royal Society 
2,000 specimens at the rate of 50 a year. The lease ordained that the garden 


should be " for the manifestation of the power, wisdom, and glory of God in 
the works of creation." It further provided, in the event of the failure of the 
Apothecaries in this trust, that the garden could be taken by the Royal Society, 
or, on their refusal, by the College of Physicians, on the same terms. 

In this year (1722) Philip Miller, the well-known botanist and horticul- 
turalist, was appointed gardener here, on the nomination of Sir Hans Sloane, 
and began his long term of office, which did not end until his retirement in 
1770. We have already noticed his house in Swan Walk, He drew up in 
1730 the first official catalogue of the plants in the Chelsea garden, written in 
English and Latin, classified according to the system devised by Ray. Three 
years before this. Sir Hans Sloane had become president of the Royal Society, 
in succession to Sir Isaac Newton, whose name is also to be found in the Chelsea 
rate-books for the year 1709, when he lived in the house built on the site of 
the old " Ship," which faced Burton's Court at the East end of Paradise Row, 
and is now occupied by Durham House. In 1732 Sir Hans Sloane laid the 
foundation stone of the new garden buildings, which included a greenhouse 
and two hothouses, and cost little short of ;({^2,ooo. A plan of the garden 
showing the buildings, and drawn by the architect, Edward Oakley, is given 
on Plate 12. Whether the garden was ever laid out in this manner we do not 
know. The architect has evidently desired to arrange the beds parallel with 
his buildings, but the cedar trees, which were planted in a line with the river, 
traverse the symmetry of the plan, and must have had an odd effect. In this 
year the Society of Apothecaries arranged to send a representative to Georgia 
periodically to collect specimens. In 1733 was passed the resolution which 
gave the garden its marble statue of Sir Hans Sloane, placed originally in front 
of the greenhouse. Michael Rysbrach was the sculptor and the work was 
set up in 1737. 

In 1736 the garden was visited by Linnaeus. In his diary is the note : 
" Miller of Chelsea permitted me to collect many plants in the garden, and 
gave me several dried specimens collected in South America." The year 1739 
saw the publication of the Index Compendiarius of the plants at Chelsea, by 
Isaac Rand, F.R.S., who held the office of "Horti praefectus" and demon- 
strator of botany, his duties being to inspect the garden and to give lectures 
on botany to students. Somewhat jealous of his position Mr. Rand had 
hastened to prepare his Index^ written only in Latin, as a rival publication 
to Miller's Catalogue, the preparation of which he considered was a usurpation 
of the privilege of the demonstrator. 

Both Mr. Rand and Mr. Miller assisted Mrs. Elizabeth Blackwell at 
this time in the preparation of her Curious Herbal^ a somewhat celebrated 
book, which cost her four or five years' hard work in the Physic Garden. In 
consequence of her husband's misfortunes she had contrived this means of 
supporting herself, and when the book was published with its 500 illustrations 
of the most valuable plants in the garden, coloured by her own hand, it met 
with a deserved success. We have seen that the name of her husband, Alexander 
Blackwell, occurs in the rate-books, apparently for No. 4 Swan Walk, from 
1736 to 1739. His strange career as physician, printer, bankrupt, and his 



tragic fate in 1 747 in Sweden, where he was beheaded for supposed connivance 
in some revolutionary plot, have been told by all Chelsea historians. He and 
his wife resided in Swan Walk during the preparation of the Herbal^ but 
Elizabeth Blackwell's success did not save him from the misfortunes which he 
' seemed almost to seek. She died in 1758 and was buried in the churchyard 
of the Old Church. 

In 1748 the buildings of the garden were put into a thorough state of 
repair. Dr. John Wilmer was appointed Demonstrator of Botany in the place 
of Joseph Miller, who had succeeded Isaac Rand in 1743. We shall see that 
Dr. Wilmer occupied Sir Francis Windham's house in Paradise Row (No. 3A) 
from 1758 to 1765. It was to his instruction that Faulkner attributes the early 
interest in botany acquired by John Martyn, Professor in this subject at the 
University of Cambridge. Martyn was a versatile and voluminous writer, and 
lived in Chelsea for many years, where he married Eulalia, youngest daughter 
of the rector, Dr. John King. 

Sir Hans Sloane's statue was removed to its present position in the 
centre of the garden in 1751, the date of the engraved plan by John Haynes 
reproduced on Plate 13. Here we may see the later arrangement of the garden, 
and the way in which the line of the river, the buildings, and the cedars — now 
important trees — have been harmonised. The inscriptions on the pedestal of 
the statue are as follows : — 









There does not seem to have been any residence for the gardener in the 
Physic Garden itself, as late as 1761, when Philip Miller presented a memorial 
requesting the Society to provide him with a dwelling. Dr. Wilmer and Mr. 
Joseph Miller were instructed to arrange this, and in 1762, as we have seen, 
Philip Miller left his house in Swan Walk. His resignation of his position of 
gardener took place in I77i,after a term of service of just upon 5oyears. Miller 
wrote the Gardeners Dictionary^ and in the 7th edition (1759) he adopted the 
classification of Linnaeus. He was also author of " A Short Introduction to 
the knowledge of the Science of Botany, explaining the terms of Art made use 
of in the Linnaean System " (1760). He was a fellow of the Royal Society and 
wrote other well known-works on botany. He died 18 December 177 1. In 18 15 
the members of the Linnaean and Horticultural Societies raised a monument 
to his memory in the churchyard of Chelsea Old Church, where he was buried. 

Two contemporary references to the Physic Garden of this period are 
worth quoting as they show the cultivation of the tea-plant, which must then 
have been rare and evidently attracted considerable notice. Mr. L'Estrange 
quotes the following from a letter written by Horace Walpole in 1 743 to Sir 
Horace Mann : — " For the tea-trees, it is my brother Edward's fault whom I 
desired as he was in Chelsea to get some from the Physic Garden ; he forgot 
it, but now that I am in town myself, if possible you shall have some seed." 
And Count Zinzendorf, the founder of the Moravian settlement, which we 
shall notice in another volume, under Lindsey House, refers to — 

The Physick Garden wherein grows 
The love-feast Tea for all the house, 

in one of the curious hymns published for the Moravians in 1749. 

L'Estrange tells us further, that " Mr. Philip Miller received the seeds 
of mignonette from Dr. Adrian Van Rozen of Leyden and cultivated it here 
at Chelsea in 1752, whence it was taken into the gardens of the London 
florists. It had been previously grown in 1 742 at Old Windsor." 

The satirical literature of the time did not miss the opportunities 
afforded by the garden for sly hits at a science which does not always appeal to 
the uninitiated. Dr. William King, in A Journey to London, etc. (i 699), revels in 
a pseudo-botanical nomenclature : " I was at Chelsea," he says, " where I took 
particular notice of these plants in the greenhouse at the time — as Urtica 
Maleolens Japonica, the stinking nettle of Japan, Goosberia Sterilis Armeniae, 
the Armenian gooseberry bush that bears no fruit — this had been potted 30 
years — Cordis quies Persiae, which the English call heart's-ease or love-in- 
idleness — a very curious plant, Brambelia fructificans Laplandiae, or the 
blooming bramble of Lapland, with a hundred other curious plants — as a 
particular collection of briars and thorns, which were some part of the curse 
of Creation." John Martyn, whom we have already mentioned, gave a whim- 
sical account in the Grub Street Journal, of a lady bereft of speech, who, guided 
by a dream, had come to the Physic Garden and had eaten a plant which re- 
stored to her the use of her tongue. To which the editor adds, that he has 
purposely suppressed that part of his correspondent's letter which gives the 
name and description of so pernicious a plant. And in the Rambler Dr. Johnson 



tells how Polyphilus, the dilettante and professor of many sciences, journeys 
to Chelsea to see a new plant in flower. 

In 1 77 1 came the beginning of the end of the old Physic Garden as it 
was in its prime. We read that in this year " the two northern cedar trees were 
cut down, together with several lime and elm trees, and some others." In 
spite of the loss in appearance and beauty the work of the garden went on 
apace and exchanges of plants were effected between Chelsea and the gardens 
of the Princess Dowager at Kew, of the Duke of Northumberland at Syon, 
and a dozen more of note. 

From 1773 to 1777, William Curtis, the author of that delightful and 
monumental work. Flora Londinensis, held the office of demonstrator. His 
book, although unfinished, constitutes a very important contribution to the 
complete historical survey of London, at which we are ourselves aiming, for it 
portrays in the most beautiful and precise manner, the flora of the fields and 
lanes that are now covered with suburban houses. He was also the founder of 
the Botanical Magazine^ which has lasted from 1787 to the present day. 

Sir Joseph Banks, who was much associated with Chelsea and the Physic 
Garden, was the donor of many hundreds of packets of seeds, collected on his 
voyages, and presented in 1778, 1781 and 1790. Another of the interesting 
figures connected with the garden was Thomas Wheeler, who was demon- 
strator in 1778 at the age of 24, and held the position for 42 years. It was the 
function of the demonstrator or horti praefectus, to lead the" herborisings" or 
botanical excursions, which were first instituted in 1633, and were the means 
of much valuable instruction and research. Mr. Wheeler was an enthusiastic 
leader of these excursions, and he accompanied them until 1834, when they were 
abandoned. He was then in his 8ist year. He was succeeded in his office of 
demonstrator by his third son James Lowe Wheeler, who published in 1830 
his Catalogus Rationalis of the contents of the garden. During this period 
there were lectures every Wednesday in the summer, and the herborisings were 
regularly attended, until in 1834 Thomas Wheeler died, and his son resigned 
his position at Chelsea. 

The subsequent history of the garden is a somewhat chequered one. 
Its very existence seemed threatened more than once, for the soil was becoming 
exhausted, the atmosphere was no longer pure, and the expenses of upkeep 
tended to increase. In 1876 the Chelsea Embankment was made, and every- 
one who knows the beauty of a riverside garden will appreciate the loss which 
this severance from the water inflicted upon the charming plot of herbs and 
flowers. In 1875 ^^^ third of the giant cedars had to be removed, and in 1903 
the last one was cut down. 

The Apothecaries were doomed to fight a losing game. They made 
one or two gallant attempts to rally their forces, and in 1862 the garden was 
well patronised and was the means of much useful work. In July, 1890, 
however, it was temporarily closed, and in 1893 the Society applied to the 
Charity Commissioners to sanction the relinquishment of their trust. This 
gave rise to a public enquiry into the matter, and a solution of the difficulty 
was happily found, which has preserved the garden to Chelsea and to the lovers 



and students of botany for ever. The following is an extract from an account 
of the proceedings by Mr. W. Hales, the present Curator: — " In 1897 the 
question of the suitability of the garden for botanical purposes was gone into 
by a Treasury Committee, consisting of Sir Henry Longley, Sir W. T. Thisel ton- 
Dyer, and Mr. Spring Rice. This Committee reported that they were sure 
that, if properly administered, the garden was capable of being usefully employed 
for botanical science at the present time, and that there was a large number ot 
students of botany to whom the garden would be an immense advantage, both 
as a place to see growing plants and from which specimens could be obtained. 
In the scheme sanctioned by the Charity Commissioners the trustees of the 
London Parochial Charities are the sole trustees of the garden, the manage- 
ment being vested in a Committee of seventeen members, nine of which are 
nominated by the London Parochial Charities, one each by the Treasury, the 
Lord President of the Council, the Technical Education Board of the London 
County Council, the Royal Society, the Pharmaceutical Society, the University 
of London, the Society of Apothecaries, and the Royal College of Physicians, 
in turns." 

The work of this new Committee started in 1899. They expended 
some ;^6,ooo in new buildings, which are partly on the site of those then pulled 
down, but are set back to admit of the widening of the road. This entailed 
also the destruction of the old wall that skirted Paradise Row. On the 
25th July the garden was re-opened by Lord Cadogan, and since then it has 
been rapidly gaining a sphere of usefulness, which will compare well with its 
earlier days. 

We have already touched upon the distinguished men most intimately 
connected with the fortunes of this garden. Mr. Hales reminds us of others : — 
"James Sherard, brother of the founder of the famous Sherardian Professorship 
of Botany at Oxford ; William Hudson, author of Flora Anglka ; William 
Forsyth, immortalised in the genus Forsythia ; Robert Fortune, who went to 
China and sent home so many beautiful plants for our gardens ; Dr. Lindley, 
the most famous botanist of his day, and Thomas Moore, author of numerous 
works on Ferns and general horticulture." 

Our illustrations include a view of the two cedars that outlived their 
fellows for many years, a drawing of the statue of Sir Hans Sloane, the pre- 
siding genius of the garden, and a photograph of the old lead tank, whose 
date, however (1670), points to an earlier source than the garden at Chelsea. 
The old wall in Swan Walk remains to remind us of its past history, and near 
the Students' entrance here, a stone is still to be seen inscribed with the name 
of its solicitous guardians for two centuries : — 







Bibliographical references. 

1685. Evelyn's Diary, Avig. 7, 1685. 

1 69 1. Rev. Dr. Hamilton, Fiew of Gardens, &=€. Archeeologia, Vol. 12. 

1705. John Bowack, Antiquities of Middlesex. 

1730. A Short Account, &c. (folio sheet), apparently an official account of the garden, 

mentioned by Faulkner. 
1732. Edward Oakley, Architect. Engraved plan of garden. 
1739. William Maitland, History of London (p. 601). 
1 75 I. J. Haynes. An Accurate Survey, &c. (engraved plan). 
1795. Rev. Daniel Lysons, Environs of London. (Extra illustrated copy, Guildhall.) 

John Martyn, Life of Philip Miller. 
1809. Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 
1820. H. Field, Memoirs of the Botanic Gardens at Chelsea. Revised and continued 

by R. H. Semple (1878). 
1880. Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, ^he Village of Palaces. 
1892. Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea. 
1906. Reginald Blunt, Paradise Row. 
Also The Chelsea Miscellany, Chelsea Public Library. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3142. Old wall of garden in Queen's Road West (photograph). 

3143. Statue of Sir Hans Sloane (photograph). 

3144. *Lead cistern (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 




XIII. Formerly No. 2a Queen's Road West (now Royal Hospital Road). 

XIV. Formerly No. 3A Queen's Road West (now Royal Hospital Road). 
XV. Formerly No. 4 Queen's Road West (now Royal Hospital Road). 

XVI. Formerly No. 5 Queen's Road West (now Royal Hospital Road). 

XVII. Formerly No. 6 Queen's Road West (now Royal Hospital Road). 

XVIII. Formerly No. 7 Queen's Road West (now Royal Hospital Road). 

Ground landlord. 

Earl Cadogan. The houses were occupied by various tenants, and were 
destroyed in 1906, their site having since been built upon. 

General description and date of structure. 

We have traversed the south side of Royal Hospital Road as far as its 
western termination at Cheyne Walk, but before proceeding along the present 
river front we must retrace our steps to the Royal Hospital itself to consider 
the row of old houses which stood upon the north side of the way, and which 
retained, until their destruction only three years ago, the ancient name of the 
road "Paradise Row." These houses formed a terrace — to use a much-abused 
word — opposite Walpole House and the stables of the Hospital, and were 
separated from Smith Street by the not unpicturesque group of buildings shown 
in Plate 17. From a copy of the lease of the site in the Middlesex Land 
Registry, Mr. Randall Davies has discovered that the name of their builder 
was George Norris, a contractor who erected them in 1691, the date of the com- 
pletion of the Royal Hospital. The houses bore ample evidence of being of 
that period and had been very little altered since. Built of the warm-coloured 
brickwork which is so characteristic of the time of Wren, they possessed fine 
roomy panelled interiors, and the outside presented all the charm of a continu- 
ous tiled roof and beautiful wood cornice. They were two storeys high, with 
rooms in the roof lighted by dormer windows. No. 2a was in the same line 
with the others, but the dormer windows had been altered to a Mansard roof, 
and the old cornice had been replaced by one of plainer type. The sash win- 
dows were symmetrically placed, the frames being original, although many of the 
sashes had been removed and slighter glazing bars substituted. A moulded 
brick string course was carried along the front. The most notable features after 
the cornice were the beautiful doorways and the wrought-iron gates and railings 
which were placed between square brick piers surmounted by stone balls. The 
houses stood back from the road at a sufficient distance to allow of good front 
gardens, in which several trees remained, and the effect of the row, clad in its 
warm-coloured brickwork and standing orderly and dignified behind the gate- 
ways and trees, impressed the beholder with its immediate and surprising beauty. 



The backs of the houses showed much that was picturesque. Some portions 
had been built out in timber framing and weather-boarding and several of the 
original sashes with heavy glazing bars remained. 

The first house at the east end, No. 2a, is shown on Plate 1 8. It is seen to 
adjoin on the east side a more modern building, which took the place of Ormonde 
House,* originally the first house of the row. Nos. 2a, 3A, and 4 were the three 
largest houses each having five windows on the bedroom floor. As mentioned 
above. No. 2a had been somewhat modernised, but retained its fine doorway 
with pilasters and carved brackets. The gate piers were intact, though cemented 
over, and had not lost their cornices or ball finials. The wrought ironwork ot 
the gates had gone, save the arched lamp-bracket overhead. 

No. 3A, also a large house, was the only one to keep its beautiful iron 
gate (Plate 20) ; the brick piers had been cemented to imitate rusticated stone- 
work, but they looked well, and it is not impossible that this was the original 
treatment. The monogram over the gate appears to be F. W., and may well 
represent the initials of Sir Francis Windham, who lived here from 1695 to 
1 715. The doorway of this house was similar to that of No. 2 a. 

No. 4, another large house, possessed rusticated piers and a good 

Nos. 5 and 6 were smaller houses, having on the bedroom floor only 
three windows each. The gates and doorways of the two buildings each ad- 
joined one another, the former being quite plain and the latter having square 
hoods with well carved brackets. The door of No, 5 had plain pilasters in 
addition. The dormer windows of No. 5 alone retained the original tiled 
roofs, the others being flat and presumably covered with lead. 

The last house, No. 7, of the same size as its neighbour, diflFered from 
the rest in having a doorway of later date, but an excellent example of its 
period. The carved brackets, which were probably original, surmounted a later 
type of pilaster and supported a pediment with a small dentil moulding. Over 
the door, which had six flush panels (contrasting with the earlier raised panels 
of the others), was a simple fanlight of cobweb design, and on the frieze was 
a small panel with curved angles (Plate 23). 

During the demolition of the houses certain fittings, &c. were saved from 
entire destruction. Among these Mr. A. W.Clarke secured two of the beautiful 
carved brackets of the overdoors, which he has fixed above his doorway at No. 23 
Cheyne Walk. Mr. Clarke also bought a fine moulded architrave of marble, 
forming the chimney-piece to one of the rooms. f The houses were panelled 

* Ormonde House, occupied according to the rate-books by the Duchess of Ormonde from 
1720 to 1733 seems to have been built in 1691 by Thomas Hill {see Randall Davies, O/d 
Chelsea Church, p. 274), and to have been the home of Archdeacon Williams in 1697; Sir Thomas 
(afterwards Lord) Pelham, 1 700-1 703; the Countess of Bristol, 1704-1708; Jermyn Wych, 
1709-1713; the Worshipful John Crawford, 1714-1719. In 1736 the house was sold by Mrs. 
Robert Butler and her son Dr. Butler to Sir Thomas Lombe, Knight and Alderman, whose name, 
with that of Lady Lombe, appears in the rate-books in 1737— 1739. In 1777 the house became 
a "Naval Academy" and remained so till 1829, when it was succeeded by Mrs. Elizabeth Fry's 
School of Discipline. 

t Now fixed in the first floor of No. 182 Ebury Street in the care of Mr. Louis Mallet, C.B. 


throughout in accordance with the custom of the period and possessed good 
staircases. Some of the carved consoles or brackets from these stairs have been 
preserved by Mr. E. Godwin at his studio in the King's Road. 

The Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, writing in 1880, says : "The houses in this 
Row, now Queen's Road, are covered with creeping plants, have pretty parterres, 
and with their handsome entrance gates in front and large gardens at the back 
might have seemed Paradisaical. They are low, but have generally five windows 
at the first floor and contain good rooms wainscoted to the ceilings. Altogether 
they have an air of old-fashioned gentility, and the sides of the hall doors are 
ornamented with wood carving." He refers also to the marble chimney-pieces 
which he compares with some which are still at Lindsey House, Chelsea, and those 
designed by Sir Christopher Wren at Hampton Court. 

Historical notes. 

Bowack (1705) says : "Near the Royal Hospital there runs a regular row of build- 
ings towards the Thames called Paradise Row." The word " regular " here is no doubt 
used in its first sense of" straight," and, as mentioned above, a large part of this row (including 
the houses we have described) appears to have been built by George Norris in the last ten 
years of the 17th century. The ancient way from Westminster to Chelsea passed (as it 
still does) from Stone Bridge — the point at which the parish boundary crosses the Pimlico 
Road^ along the Royal Hospital Road, and by Cheyne Walk to the Old Church. But at 
the time of the building of the Hospital the carriageway was diverted and made to pass round 
Burton Court, which still remains unbuilt upon. Burton Court thus lay across the road- 
way, as shown in Hamilton's Survey, and the road from this point to its junction with Cheyne 
Walk, bore the name of Paradise Row. The presence of the noble buildings of the Hospital 
no doubt drew attention to the fine building sites along this road, and while the riverfront- 
age became adorned with such large residences as Walpole House, Gough House, and the 
Turret House, the other side of the road was quickly built upon and received many notable 
residents. From Ormonde House at the extreme north-east it stretched to Radnor House, 
which stood at the north-west corner, where Flood Street (formerly Robinson's Lane and 
called still earlier Pound Lane) joins the river walk — the site of the village pound. More 
recently the roadway was again opened across the Hospital grounds, and the name has been 
successively changed to Queen's Road West and Royal Hospital Road. 

The rate-books* of the parish assist us in recalling the names of those who lived in 
Paradise Row during the i8th century and a few of the preceding years. We must, 
however, confine ourselves to the six houses under consideration, the occupants of which 
did not a little to make the locality famous. We will give the list of names as found in the 
parish books and refer the reader to Mr. Reginald Blunt's delightful book on the subject, 
and to independent biographical works for further information concerning the people 

The first house west of Ormonde House, No. 2a, was occupied by Madame Hunt, 
1 695-1 699, and b}- John Newark from i 700-1 707, the name of "Madame "Newark appear- 
ing under i 706. " Madame " Matthew was here in 1 708, and Sir Jacob Banks from i 709 
to 171 2. John Putland appears from 1 71 2 to 1723. There is a stone in the chancel floor 
of the Old Church recording the death of Thomas Putland, Esq., who died July 14th, 1723, 
aged 72. From 1725 to 1732 the house was occupied by Colonel John Hopkey. Then 
follows for two years the name of John Braithwaite, from 1735— 1738 George Abbott, and 
1 738-1 741 William Pawlett. After the break in the rate-books we find the following 

* The rate-list for 1684 is extant, but the rate-books do not begin regularly until the year 
1695. They are somewhat imperfect for the first few years. They continue with the following 
breaks, caused by volumes mislaid or lost : 1742-1746, 1752-1753, 1783-1789. 



names: — Francis Storey, 1748-1755; Elizabeth Storey, 1756-1769 ; Frances Storey, 
1770-1780; Mrs. Delafountain, 1781-1782; Martha Keightley, 1790-1793 ; John 
Turner, 1 794-1 796; Rev. Thomas Williamson, 1 797-1 798. 

The next house. No. 3A, has already been mentioned as the home of Sir Francis 
Windham. Faulkner states that he came to Chelsea about the year 1 700. Bowack, 
writing in 1705, mentions him as residing in Paradise Row, and the rate-books include his 
name from 1695— 171 5. The parish register records the burial of his first wife. Lady Hester 
Windham, at Chelsea Church on April 24th, 1708. His second wife survived him, and 
her name appears on the rate-lists for three years and is then replaced by that of the 
" Worshipful " William Lowfield, whom, Faulkner tells us, she married. She died at her house 
in Paradise Row on June 26th, 1739, and Lowfield's name continues till the break in the 
lists,which occurs in 1 74 1 . Thejmonument on the south wall of the Old Church to " Mrs. Ann 
Lowfield, daughter of Thomas Lowfield, Esq., late of this parish" (died 1 720), may, perhaps, 
refer to a sister. From 1 748 the house was in the occupation of Susannah Eyre* until 
1 75 I, when she seems to have moved into the next house. In 1754 we find David Price, 
followed in 1758 by Dr. John Wilmer, in 1766 by Marian Milward, in 1769 by John 
Morris, and in 1776 by Charles Woodward, who stayed here till 1782. For a few years 
the house was shared by tenants till it was taken by Keith Shepherd in 1795, and in 
1799 it was occupied by Colonel Daniel Shaw. 

No. 4, the last of the three larger houses, seems to have been the celebrated home of 
Hortense, Duchess of Mazarin. At the tinie that she lived here the rate-lists almost 
invariably begin with the titled residents of Chelsea, thus giving us no clue to their topo- 
graphical position among the other ratepayers. With the exception of the year 1695, the 
names of Sir Francis Windham and the Duchess of Mazarin do not therefore appear in 
Paradise Row, and in that year there is a little uncertainty about the order in which they 
are written. There is, however, no doubt, from the evidence of the later lists, that Sir 
Francis Windham occupied No. 3A, and since his house is assessed at the same value as 
that of the Duchess, it follows from the size of the houses that she lived in either No. 2a 
or No. 4. Mr. L'Estrange, writing in 1880, was told that her house was the first in the 
Row — namely, the former of these two — but we are inclined to think, after a careful com- 
parison of the entries, that No. 2a was occupied by Madame Hunt {vide ante) and that 
No. 4 housed the Duchess of Mazarin. She had come to England in 1675, and 
Mr. L'Estrange tells us that she moved to Chelsea from the " petit palais " in St. James's 
in 1694. It is quite probable that she was the first tenant of the house. Her name 
appears in the rate-lists, generally as a defaulter in respect of payment, from 1695 to 
1698-9. She died here in July 1699. The picturesque story of her life has often been 
told, and she is not the least among the many famous personalities that link Chelsea with 
the history of the 17th and i8th centuries. 

This was probably the house for which Baron Grimfield paid one quarter's rates in 
1698-9, but he left in the following year, and was succeeded by Lady Musgrove, who 
left in 1702. In Bowack's time it was the home of John Crawford, Esq., "one of Her 
Majesty's Commissioners, son to Commissary David Crawford." "t" The rate-books place 
John Crawford here from 1702 to 17 14, when he seems to have moved into Ormonde 
House, as it was to be soon called, for he immediately preceded the Duchess. He died 
December 19th, 1720, and was buried in the Old Church, where there is a stone to his 
memory near the Cheyne Monument. No. 4 was occupied by William Hepburn, 
I 71 5— 17 1 9, and by Viscount and Lady Townshend during 1720 and 1721. Lord 
Townshend married the sister of Sir Robert Walpole, and procured him the ofiice of 
Paymaster-General. He may have been the means of bringing Walpole to Chelsea at 
this time. James Keith (?) was here for two years, and in 1725 John Palmer. In 1728 

* Faulkner records the death in 1 743 of Kingsmill Eyre, Esq., Secretary and Registrar of 
the Royal Hospital, who was buried in the Hospital Burial Ground. 

■j" David Crawford was Lieutenant-Governor of the Royal Hospital, January i, 1694-5. He 
died in 1723, aged 79, and was buried in the Hospital burial ground. 



Mrs. Palmer's name appears, and continues to 1734. Capt. John Cole was here from 
1735 to 1 741, and then follow 1747-175 1, Susannah Stiffkin ; 1 754-1 762, Susannah 
Eyre; 1763-1764, Henry Basset; 1765-1792, William Thompson; 1793-1796, 
Elizabeth Thompson ; 1 797-1 802, Moses le Vin. 

Nos. 5 and 6. No. 5, the first of the smaller houses, was apparently in the occupation 
of Ambrose Upton from 1695 to 1697. Thence onwards until 1740, a period of 44 
years, it was the home of a Mrs. Penelope Webster. In 1741 we find the name of the 
Rev. Rothery, who had kept a school at Turret House, Paradise Row. The following 
names then occur : Thomas Sharpe, 1747 to 1754 ; Mr., and afterwards Mrs., Connor, 
1755-1759 ; and Augustine le Tellier from 1759 ^'^ ^7^7- Mrs. Lantware occupied 
the house from 176910 1772, and Captain John Osborne during 1 773-1 774; from 1776 
to 1781, John Shelley (or Schenley) ; 1782-1783, James Dove ; 1790-1792, Elizabeth 
Davenant ; i 793-1 794, Mary Cross ; 1795, James Neale. 

It is not easy to identify the tenants of No. 6 before 1701, when we find the house 
in the possession of Jermyn Wych. He lived here till he moved into Ormonde House in 1706 
{see note, p. 24). Both Ormonde House and No. 6 had become the property of Robert 
Butler, who lived in the latter house himself from 1706 to the year of his death, 171 2. 
Lysons mentions his tomb in the churchyard. He owned, besides his two houses in Para- 
dise Row, the large mansion and gardens which had formerly belonged to the Earls of 
Shrewsbury (see Shrewsbury House), All this property is mentioned in his will, dated 
26th July 171 1, and proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury on 29th December 
171 2. His wife, Martha Butler, lived on at No. 6 Paradise Row till her death in 1739. 
The name of her son, Edward Butler, D.C.L. (sometime President of Magdalen College, 
Oxford) appears in 1740-1741. The names of later residents are 1748— 1756, Mary 
Blow; 1757-1765, Mary Herbert; 1766, Benjamin Tate; 1766-1777, Catherine 
Hagar ; 1 777-1 780, Sarah Orton ; 1 781-1782, George Aust ; 1783, Bilby Darling; 
1 790-1 800, Colonel James Chalmers. 

No. 7 was occupied from 1695 to 1698 by Thomas Hill, the builder of Ormonde 
House. The house was then taken by a family named Clifford, who resided here from 
1698 to 1736. The next name to appear is : — Mrs. Bushier (probably Bouchier, Sir 
Richard Gough's daughter, see p. 40), 1737-1741. From 1747-175 1 Lady Mary 
Griffin lived here, and after her Thomas Abbott, 1 754-1 772, and Catherine Abbott, 

Bibliographical references. 

John Bowack, Antiquities of Middlesex (1705). 

Rev. Daniel Lysons, Environs of London (1795). 

Thos. Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church (1904). 

Reginald Blunt, Paradise Rozv (1906). 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3146. *General view from the east (photograph). 

3147. No. 2 A Paradise Row with houses to Burton's Court (photograph). 

3148. No. 2A Paradise Row with two houses eastwards (photograph). 

3149. *Nos. 3 A and 4 Paradise Row (photograph). 

3150. *Gatevvay, No. 3a Paradise Row (photograph). 

315 I. Gateway, No. 3A Paradise Row (another photograph). 

3152. Nos. 5 and 6 Paradise Row (photograph). 

3153. Overdoors, Nos. 5 and 6 Paradise Row (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 



3154. No. 7 Paradise Row (photograph). 

3155. No. 7 Paradise Row (another photograph). 

3156. Doorway, No. 7 Paradise Row (photograph). 

3157. *Doorway, No. 7 Paradise Row (another photograph). 

3158. *General view from the west (photograph). 

3159. *General view from the west (another photograph). 

3160. *Back view of Nos. 2a and 3A (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 




Passing westward from the site of the six houses last described, we cross 
Tite Street and find three houses of mid 19th century date, Nos. 11, 12 and 
13, which keep the original frontage line of the north side of Paradise Row. 
No. 1 1 retains, too, some brick piers with stone finials similar to those which 
belonged to its more ancient neighbours towards the east. 

Nos. 14 and 15 adjoin these houses, 
but project forward considerably towards the 
street, while Nos. 16 and 17 form another 
projection, being built flush with the street. 
This apparently was the original setting-out 
of the street. The two houses Nos. 14 and 
1 5 (with Nos. 1 6 and 1 7, which, though dating 
from c. 1750, do not possess features of suffi- 
cient interest for inclusion in our Survey) are 
the only survivors of the north side of the 
1 8 th century street as Chelsea knew it only 
a few years ago. They are not of any great 
age, dating probably from a few years before 
1800, and scarcely merit any full descrip- 
tion here. They, however, possess doorways 
which are worth noting as very fair examples 
of the influence of the so-called " Chippen- 
dale-Gothic" — which is shown in the treat- 
ment of the fanlights. The two doors differ 
slightly, but both have a not unpleasing cor- 
nice, and a frieze decorated with slightly sunk 
carving, supported by pilasters, which are pan- 
DOORWAY AT No. 15. elled in No. 14 and reeded in No. 15. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3 161. Nos. 14 and 15 Royal Hospital Road, general view (photograph). 

3162. No. 14 Royal Hospital Road, Front doorway (photograph). 

3163. *No. 15 Royal Hospital Road, Front doorway (photograph), 

* Reproduced here. 



XXL— Formerly No. 41 QUEEN'S ROAD WEST 

This house, which stood on the north side of the road next but one to 
the eastern corner of Christchurch Street, was of early date and probably one of 
the original buildings of Paradise Row. It, and its fellow, stood back a con- 
siderable distance from the street, and shops belonging to them had been built 
on the intervening space. The shop-front of No. 41 has been thought worthy 
of inclusion here on account ot the persistent tradition that ascribed its design 
to Pugin. We learn from Mr. William Ascroft, whose family resided in 
Paradise Row for a very long period, that a carpenter employed by Pugin lived 
here, and must, in all likelihood, have built the front. Although it is con- 
ceivable that the man may have put together various details of Pugin's in a 
design of his own, yet it seems more probable that he had some hints from the 
great architect, who himself lived for a short time in Cheyne Walk, having re- 
modelled for Mr. Harrington Moore one of the old houses, which was there- 
after called Gothic House.* Of the credibility of the report the reader may 
judge for himself by his estimation of the skill or otherwise of the design. 
The house and shop have been pulled down in the recent clearance of the 
north-west side of Royal Hospital Road (1903), and with them have gone all 
the other varied and picturesque buildings which are shown in Mr. W. W. 
Burgess' sketch in the Chelsea Public Library. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3164. General view from south-west (photograph), 

3165. Shop front from south-west (photograph). 

3166. Shop front, front view (photograph). 

3167. iShop front, front view (line drawing). 

* This was No. 10 Cheyne Walk (pulled down in 1887). There is a local tradition that 
Count d'Orsay— Carlyle's " Phoebus Apollo of Dandyism " — occupied it for a short time. 

■j" Reproduced here. 



Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc. 

The ground landlord is the Earl Cadogan, the present leaseholder being 
S. P. Newcombe, Esq. 

General description, etc. 

We now begin at the east end of Cheyne Walk. No. i is a modern 
house, but it contains a sufficiently large amount of early work, taken from the 
district and elsewhere, to justify its inclusion here. It was built in 1 887-1 888 
on the site of an early 1 8th century house,* from the designs of Mr. F. Hem- 
mings. The house stands at the corner of Flood Street, originally called Pound 
Lane, then Robinson's Row, and later Queen Street. The village pound used 
to stand opposite the end of the lane at the waterside. 

The portions of old work incorporated in the house are from the follow- 
ing buildings: — No. 12 Cheyne Walk contributed the columns and carved 
entablature of the front doorway and some finely-carved mahogany doors and 
architraves, which have been used in the library and dining-room. A mahogany 
bookcase in the library on the ground floor stood formerly in the dining-room 
of No. 12. Radnor House, which stood at the end of Paradise Row, at the 
corner of Flood Street, opposite to No. i Cheyne Walk, gave the beautiful 
chimney-piece, with a frieze of carved foliage and birds, placed in the front 
bedroom (second floor). No. 8 Cheyne Walk produced the balusters of the 
staircase, which have the same design as those of Nos. 2 and 3 ; and the charming 
Queen Anne panelling in the drawing-room came from an old house in Austin 
Friars. Leading out of the dining-room is a small ante-room, which seems to 
have been built to receive the panelling of one of the i8th century "powder- 
rooms," and preserves an early chimney-piece of pleasing design. 

Condition of repair. 

The house is in excellent repair. 

Historical notes on the houses from which the various features have 
been taken. 

Radnor House was the last house in Paradise Row, on the right-hand side as the 
visitor approached Chelsea from London, and was finally destroyed in 1888. It was pro- 
bably built at the same time as the western end of Paradise Row and obtained its name 
from Laetitia Isabella, Countess of Radnor, who was, perhaps, its first occupant. Until the 
publication of Mr. Randall Davies' exhaustive work on Chelsea Old Church it was supposed 
that this was the residence of the Earl of Radnor, but Mr. Davies has shown that the Earl 
lived at Danvers House from 1660 to 1685, the year of his death, and that it was Danvers 
House, not Radnor House, at which he entertained Charles II., and which was described 

* See sketch in Harper's Magazine, 1881 ; also a drawing of the new front of No. 2 Cheyne 
Walk in The Building AVav, Sept. 26, i 879, which indicates a portion of No. I with its doorway, &c. 



by Pepys as " the prettiest contrived house that I ever saw in my life."* After the Ear 
of Radnor's death Lady Radnor married Charles, Lord Cheyne, who was then a widower. 
She lived with him till he died in 1698, and it was after his decease that she resided at 
Radnor House, till in 1714 she was buried beside her second husband. The date of the 
surviving chimney-piece is not earlier than 1698. 

No. 8 Cheyne Walk was one of six houses pulled down when Manor Street was 
widened. Of its residents the rate-books give us the name of Sir John Brown, 1723-1734. ; 
Edward le Novo, 1 738-1 739 ; William Latton, 1 740-1 741. Mrs. Mary Norman occupied 
the house during the period between 1748 and 1775, the missing books before this 
time making it uncertain if she resided here longer than these 28 years. Her name must 
not be confused with that of the " Mrs." Norman who is the subject of Faulkner's graceful 
little encomium, and who died in i827,leaving £112 4s., the interest of which was to be 
distributed annually to the poor. In 1782 we find Michael Duffield living at No. 8, and 
he occupied both No. 7 and 8 from 1790 to 1800. 

No. 12, formerly No. 13 Cheyne Walk, was the most considerable of the six houses 
pulled down in 1887. Mr. William Ascroft, to whom we owe the details of the features 
preserved in No. i, thus describes the building : — This was a noble Georgian mansion, 
formerly extending halfway across old Manor Street, the doorway at No. i being in the 
centre. There was a bay at the back. Originally there were seven windows in the first 
and second floor front. An additional storey with "curb" roof was added by Sir John 
Scott Lillie, who at one time lived here. The drawing-room ceiling was in the Adams' 
style, having oval ornamentation and decorative vases, at one time tinted with French white, 
the plain part or field being of delicate lilac. The mahogany doors are now at No. i, 
also other fittings. There were some beautiful chimney-pieces, that in the dining-room 
being of oak. It had a beautifully carved lion on the centre plaque, and fruit and flowers 
with ribbons along the top and down the sides, with curved "tabernacle" moulding. 

The first occupant of the house was the Earl of Sutherland, who took up his residence 
here, according to the rate-books, in 1723 and continued until 1736. The house remains 
in his name, although marked " empty," until the break in the lists in 1742. From 1748 
to 175 1 we find Thomas Pigot, and in 1754 Jane Stedwell. It was occupied in the 
four following years by Matthew Thompson, succeeded in 1 760 by Viscount Kilmorey,! 
who lived here until 1768. Its next occupant, a solicitor, Mr. John Fraine, suffered from 
a curious paralytic disease which mystified the great Dr. Messenger Monsey, and is the 
subject of a long letter by the doctor describing his symptoms, printed by Faulkner. He 
died in 1785, aged 70. Faulkner gives us also the curious but painful circumstances in 
which Mr. Fraine's son and daughter committed suicide, the latter in the year of 
her father's death. From 1 790 to 1 800 the house was occupied by Col. Philip Skene, 
Mr. William Ascroft tells us that Justice Gregory, who lived here in the early half of last 
century, used to give the watermen who plied at the Bishop stairs opposite a guinea a year 
to protect the rooks, for there was then a rookery in the great elms which stood on either 
side, some few remaining for a short time after the Embankment was made. 

Bibliographical references. 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Reginald Blunt, Paradise Row (1906). 

Harper's Magazine (1881). 

Building News (26th September 1879). 

* We are fortunate in possessing plans of Danvers House in the John Thorpe Collection (Soane 
Museum) and a plan of the elaborate garden in the Aubrey MSS. (The Bodleian Library). 

■j" John Offley, the owner of the Lawrence House property, who died in 1 784, bequeathed 
alljhis property to Francis Needham, younger son of Robert, seventh Viscount Kilmorey and Mary 



In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3168. *Nos. I to 5 Cheyne Walk (photograph). 

3169. *Front door from No. 12 Cheyne Walk (photograph). 

3 1 70. *Front door from No. 1 2 Cheyne Walk (photograph). 

3 1 71. *Chimney-piece from Radnor House (photograph). 

3172. Drawing-room. 

3173. Dining-room. 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc. 

Ground landlord, Earl Cadogan. Leaseholder, Mrs. Leith Hay-Clark. 

General description and date of structure. 

Early 1 8th century. The house was refronted in 1879 from the designs 
of S. B. Clark, architect.* The plan shows the arrangement common to most 
of the small i8th century houses in Chelsea and elsewhere, having a front and 
back room, with a narrow entrance hall and staircase, which completes the width. 
The back room has a small ante-room leading out of it and projecting into the 
garden, which is repeated on the three principal floors, and forms one of the most 
characteristic features of the houses of the period. These rooms, although they 
possess fireplaces, are almost too small for bedrooms, and seem to be designed 
for some kind of retiring rooms. They are traditionally called powdering-closets, 
a reminiscence, no doubt, of the elaborate toilet of the 1 8 th century, which may 
well have made necessary these adjuncts to the drawing-room and bedrooms. 
On the first floor the " powder-room " with its old panelling remains intact ; 
the front and back rooms have been thrown into one drawing-room, and the old 
cornice and chimney-pieces remain. Below, on the ground floor, the front room 
has suffered somewhat from the alterations to the main wall. The back room 
is used as a pantry. On the second floor the bedrooms retain their old character, 
though the front room has lost its panelling. The balcony or loggia on this 
floor is modern. The most interesting early feature is perhaps the staircase, 
which is of tasteful design, with two prettily turned balusters to each stair. The 
first flight (only as far as the half landing), has its stair-ends carved with the cha- 
racteristic "console" or bracket of foliage and flower, but above this the carving 
gives place to the less elaborate moulded string — a device which suggests the 
"speculating builder," who existed even as far back as two centuries, although 
his methods had not reached the sad lengths of the present day. 

Condition of repair. 

The house is in good repair. 

Historical notes. 

When Sir Hans Sloane purchased the Manor House from William, Lord Cheyne, in 
1 71 2, the Great Garden stretched from Flood Street as far as the western wall of the 
present No. 1 8 Cheyne Walk, and there were pleasure gardens behind the Manor House 
as far as Winchester House, which stood on the site of Oakley Crescent. The picturesque 
way from Paradise Row proceeded thus between the low river wall on one side and the wall 
of the garden on the other as it led westwards to the village and its church. It was not 
till 30 years later that Sir Hans Sloane actually resided at the Manor House, and when he 
did so he looked upon a very different scene from that of the day of his purchase. In 

* FUe BuiMng News, 26th September 1879, 



1 7 1 7 he began to dispose of the whole o. the garden frontage towards the river, in plots 
for building, and in a short space of time the whole place was occupied with a new row of 
houses. Although several of these were built for special tenants who had their own require- 
ments, the majority seem to have been speculations on the part either of Sir Hans Sloane 
himself or of the builders to whom he leased the land. Copies of the leases are still to be 
seen in the Middlesex Land Registry. There is little doubt thatNos. i, 2, and 3 Cheyne 
Walic were such speculations, being modelled on one plan and having practically the same 
details throughout. 

The following is a list of the tenants of No. 2 : — - ^j; ^• 

1 72 1. Stephen Benzet. 

1722-1723. Anne Mulden. 

1723-172 4. Mary Waterhouse. 

1 725-1 736. Catherine Loane, who tenanted No. 3 as well. -:t::3 Y..;;''- 

1 738-1 7 54. Mary Priest. 

1755. Dr. da Costa (or Cost). 

1756. Mary Marisal. 

1 757-1 758. Adam Meyrick. 
1759. W. Jocelyn. • J «•• ■ 

" or 1760. Stephen Fox. il" I'-i; 

I 761-1770. John Greenwell. 

1 77 1. Mr. Richard. ._._ 

1 772-1 782. Rebecca Stratton. ^ -^ 

1 79 1. Richard Pape. 

1 792-1 798. Sarah Bowes. :;i:°30 '. 

In connection with the above names we may note that Faulkner writes of a number 
of pictures of Chelsea by an artist named De Cost, which were included in the Catalogue 
of Lord Cremorne's pictures. The same author records the death of William Joscelyn in 
1782, and under the same date the will of William Jousselin, Esq., who bequeathed £1^ 
to each of the Charity Schools. He also tells us of the bequest by Stephen Fox in 1772 
of the sum of ^100 to each of the same schools. 





Ground landlord. 

This house is the property of the present occupier, Rowland Edmund 
Prothero, Esq., M.V.O. 

General description and date of structure. 

Built about 171 7, this house retains much of its original character as far 
as the second floor. The front door possesses a charming hood with elabor- 
ately carved brackets. The front room on the ground floor has been brought 

forward slightly, but otherwise the old brickwork is 
untouched. The plan is similar to that of No. 2, but 
is reversed, the entrance being on the left-hand side 
as one approaches. The staircases of the two houses 
are alike in detail and the little hall (Plate 30) is very 
characteristic of the period. Mr. Prothero has thrown 
the front, back, and "powder" rooms into one, both 
on the ground and first floors. These rooms retain 
their original panelling and bold cornice. The fire- 
place in the front room on the ground floor has a 
good carved chimney-piece with marble slips. In 
the room above a chimney-piece of "Adam" design 
has been inserted. The angle fireplaces in the back 
rooms on both of these floors have lost their mantels. 
On the second floor the front room has its old 
panelling but a late fiireplace, the back rooms (thrown 
into one) have each the original architrave around 
the fireplace, and part of the panelling. The third 
and fourth floors are modern additions, and the 
house has been further enlarged by throwing out a 



projection on brackets on the garden front. 
Condition of repair. 

The house is in good repair. 

Historical notes. 

This house was built at the same time as Nos. i and 2 on part of the Great Garden 
of the Manor House, c. 171 7. The parish rate-books give the following residents during 
the 1 8th century : — 

1 720-1 723. Colonel Kempenfelt. 

1 72 5-1 736. (With No. 2) Catherine Loane. 

1 737-1 738. Vincent Oakley. 

1738-1739. Mrs, Carey. 

1 740-1 74 1. William Parrett 

I 748-1 781. Oakley Halford. 

1782. Mary Brisac. 

1790-1795. Thomas Collett. 

1 795-1 800. R^ne Collett. 



Sir John Goss (lived 1800-1880) resided here at two separate periods, once when 
organist of Chelsea New Church, and again after he had been appointed organist of St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

Admiral William Henry Smith (lived 1788-1865), Vice-President of the Royal 
Society and a founder of the Royal Geographical Society, lived here c. 1840—1851. 

Bibliographical references. 

Dictionary of National Biography (Sir John Goss and Admiral Smith). 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 




*View of No. 3 (with No. 4) (photograph). 

* Front doorway (photograph). 
*Hall (photograph). 

* Staircase (measured drawing). 
*Staircase (detail) (photograph). 
*Mantel-piece, ground floor (photograph). 
*Mantel-piece, ground floor (detail) (photograph). 
*Plan, first floor (measured drawing). 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc. 

Ground landlord. Earl Cadogan. Leaseholder, Ernest Louis 
Meinertzhagen, Esq., J. P. 

General description and date of structure. v..-."::c!:r s:;t 

No. 4 seems to have been built with more care and expense than Nos. 
I to 3, and was in all likelihood specially designed for its first owner (William 
Morrison). The date 171 8 upon the lead head to the rainwater pipe (which 
is now in the front of the house, but was formerly at the back) points to its 
erection at the same time as its neighbours in the walk. The charming redbrick 
front has been almost untouched save where a third storey was added, and the 
modern " battlements " were placed upon the parapet, but the house has had 
certain modifications within. The present owner has, however, preserved all 
the early work, and has removed one or two modern features such as the small 
projecting windows shown on Plate 28, which were out of harmony with the 
original design. The accompanying plans show as nearly as possible the old 






arrangement of the rooms. The drawing-room on the first floor was divided 
at one time by a partition, but this has been removed, and it is doubtful whether 
the room was ever meant to be other than one apartment. 

No. 4 possesses the most beautiful of all the doorways in Cheyne Walk. 
It consists of an elaborate hood with carved brackets which overshadow two fine 
Corinthian pilasters with boldly traced foliage. The wrought-iron gate, too, 
though not without its rivals in the Walk in the matter of size and importance, is 
quite unequalled for charm and delicacy of design and workmanship, and the 



stone path from gate to doorway binds the whole into a wonderfully attractive 

The hall shown in Miss Newcombe's drawing (Plate 38) preserves its 
original stair, around which the walls are completely covered with paintings in 
oil, of very pleasant quality. On the ceiling of the first floor landing the place 
of the cornice is taken by a curved angle on which the artist has painted a 
cornice. The ceiling has mythological figures, among which Juno with a pea- 
cock by her side is prominent. The walls have two classical landscapes in 
excellent condition. The name of the artist is not known, but the work is 
traditionally attributed to Sir James Thornhill, and is in his style, though pro- 
bably by some less known man. The paintings are, to all appearances, of the 
same date as the house, but it has been thought that they were touched up by 
Maclise during his occupancy. The stair itself is cleverly disposed in its posi- 
tion, and has three twisted balusters to each tread, over a shaped bracket. 
The old stone and marble paving remains. 

Passing between two fluted Corinthian pilasters one reaches a fine room 
nearly 30 feet long, which is used as a dining-room. Here one is struck at 
once by two peculiarities in the plan : first the massive brickwork around the 
fireplaces, which project into the room at both ends and are built diagonally 
across the angles ; and, second, the fact that there are two of the miniature 
rooms, before described as "powder " rooms, which form two wings to the 
house on the garden side. The reasons for these variations from a normal plan of 
the period are far from being clear. The fireplace on the east wall has a charm- 
ing design, in the outline of its marble surround, which wc do not remember 
to have seen elsewhere. Mr. Meinertzhagen has had it duplicated for the 
opposite fireplace, which had plain marble slips, and has moved these latter to 
the east fireplace in the drawing-room above. The wall north of the dining-room 
has been moved out two feet towards the garden and a very slightly curved 
window has been inserted. Otherwise the beautiful panelling, cornice, &c. 
remain as they always were. 

The front room on the ground floor retains its panelling. It has also 
an angle fireplace but with a modern chimney-piece. There is a curious arched 
recess on the east wall flanked by two very small cupboards. 

On the first floor the front room is complete with its fine moulded 
panelling and carved chimney-piece. The drawing-room is also in perfect 
keeping with the rest, for although it has lost its original mantels others have 
been cleverly substituted, made up from portions of old enriched mouldings ; 
and the door leading into one of the " powder " rooms has been removed, 
thus making it into a quaint recess from the larger room and showing its old 
panelling to greater advantage. 

Of the other rooms in the house, the most interesting is the large L- 
shaped bedroom overlooking the river on the second floor. Its old panelling 
is intact, and its four beautiful windows and good chimney-piece of moulded 
marble help to make it most attractive. 

The main well-staircase stops at the first floor, the other storeys being 
reached by the secondary staircase, which terminates above in a curious wooden 



column. At the back of this staircase, between it and the west wall, there was 
formerly a space some two or three feet deep, which formed a well from the 
top to the bottom of the house. The fact has been noticed by such writers as 
L'Estrange and Besant, and some speculation indulged in as to its purpose. 
It is quite possible, however, that it was merely a space for a lift, since pulley 
lifts are not unknown as early as the i8th and even 17th centuries. 

In the basement little is left beyond an interesting old dresser, and a 
pump with leaden pump-head over the well in the scullery. 

Condition of repair. 

The house is in excellent repair. 

Historical notes. 

The date on the rainwater head is 1 7 1 8, but the first resident whose name we find 
in the rate-books is William Morrison for the years 1722 to 1729. The following names 
then appear : — 

1730-1731. Lady Gough. 

1 732-1 737. Ann Bushier [Bouchier]. 

1 738-1 749. Gilbert Marshall. 

1750-1761. Alice Conway. 

1762. Philip Bellie. 

1763. Mrs. Bellie and Mrs. Rogers. 
1 763-1 773. Elizabeth Rogers. 

1774— 1776. Susannah Burn. 

1 778-1 783. Rev. Weedon Butler. 

1 790-1 795. Joseph Phipson. 
1796. Margaret Riley. 

1 797-1 799. Robert Fraser. 

Since Sir Richard Gough of Gough House {see No. Ill) died in 1 728, it seems certain 
that the Lady Gough who took the house in 1730 was his widow. Her name appears in 
the rate-books for 1729 in conjunction with that of her son at Gough House. According 
to Faulkner, she was the daughter of Nicholas Crispe, of London. From a note in the diary 
of Narcissus Luttrell, who lived at Little Chelsea, we learn that her daughter married a 
Mr. Bouchier. It would seem, therefore, that the Mrs. Ann " Bushier " of the rate-books, 
who succeeded her in residence, was none other than this daughter, who in 1737, the year 
that she left Cheyne Walk, seems to have taken No. 7 Paradise Row {see p. 27). The 
Rev. Weedon Butler who, Faulkner tells us, kept his school in Chelsea for forty years, 
appears to have resided at No. 4 until he moved to No. 6, with which his name is generally 
associated and where we shall find him in 1 790. He seems to have already begun his well- 
known school here, and to have found that he needed larger accommodation. 

Mr. Wm. Ascroft has pointed out that Faulkner gives this erroneously as the house 
of the Neilds. We think the fault is more probably that of the printer than of Faulkner 
himself, who could scarcely have been in error since John Camden Neild was a subscriber 
to his book. Mr. Ascroft further states that a Miss Wisby kept a ladies' school here at one time. 

William Dyce, R.A., lived here in 1 846—1 847 while executing his frescoes in the House 
ofLords,Westminster. About the year 1861 Daniel Maclise,R. A., took the house. Mr.Beaver, 
in his Memorials of Old Chelsea, quotes from a letter of his to The Times entitled : " A Voice 
from Cheyne Walk." He lived here till the year of his death, 1870. 

Wm. Sandys Wright Vaux (1818-1885), President of the Society of Antiquaries, 
Keeper of Coins and Medals, British Museum, Secretary to the Royal Asiatic Society, Pre- 
sident of the Numismatic Society, lived here for a short time. He left in 1880, and on 
December 3rd the house was taken by the famous novelist, Mrs. Cross, better known as 



George Eliot, whose residence, short as it was, has given it its chief interest. She came here 
with high hopes of better health than had latterly been her lot and of gaining pleasure from 
the beautiful riverside ; but it was only for a few days. She caught a chill at a concert in 
St. James's Hall, and died on the night of December 22nd. 

Bibliographical references. 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and Its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Reginald Blunt, Handbook to Chelsea. 

Dictionary of N ational Biography (Dyce, Maclise, Vaux, George Eliot). 

W. Justin O'Driscoll, Memoir of Daniel Maclise. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3182. General view (photograph). 

3183. *Entrance gate (photograph). 
3 I 84. Entrance gate (photograph). 

3185. Entrance gate, side view (photograph). 

3186. Entrance gate, view from garden (photograph). 

3187. *Entrance gate (measured drawing, tinted). 

3188. Front doorway (photograph). 

3189. *Front doorway another view (photograph). 

3190. *Front doorway (measured drawing, line). 
3 191. *Hall and stair (wash drawing). 

3192. Staircase, detail (photograph). 

3193. Fireplace, dining-room (photograph). 

3194. *Fireplace, dining-room, another view (photograph). 

3195. Fireplace, drawing-room (photograph). 

3196. *Fireplace, front room, first floor (photograph). 

3197. *Fireplace, front bedroom, second floor (photograph). 

3198. *Plans of ground, first, and second floors. 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc. 

Ground landlord, Earl Cadogan. Leaseholder, H. C. Sotheran, Esq. 

General description and date of structure. 

A panel preserved from a lead cistern and fixed upon the garden wall of 
No. 5 is inscribed with the date 1 718, from which it appears that this house was 
built at the same time as the others, which we have described in Cheyne Walk. 

The front elevation has been modernised and scarcely 
gives promise of the delightful work to be found 
within, although the finewrought-iron gates suggest 
its antiquity. These gates are, however, somewhat 
of a puzzle, for at first sight their size and impor- 
tance seem incongruous when compared with the 
modest dimensions of the building. The threegates 
occupy the full length of the frontage, that in the 
centre being divided from the two smaller ones by 
fine brick piers surmounted by a good stone cornice 
and vases of quite exceptional excellence. The piers 
seem to have been designed for large double gates ; 
they are 1 1 feet apart, and would take two gates 
each 4 feet wide, as well as the wrought-iron"panels 
or pilasters. The pilasters are here placed on each 
side of the single gate, and the rest of the space is 
made out with plain railings. The wrought-iron 
scroll work which crowns the gate and railings in- 
cludes two charming lamp-stands and a monogram 
of interlacing initials. The two smaller gates have 
each some simple scroll work upon the bar under 
which they open. 

The first doubt that naturally arises in the mind — as to the reason for a 
large centre gateand two small ones in front of so confined a forecourt which gives 
access to a house whose entrance door is not central but placed at the extreme 
left — is partly dispelled by Mr. Wm. Ascroft, who has made the following note : 
" The doors were originally in the centre, opening into a large hall, now the 
dining-room. The approach was by a wide flight of steps with stone balusters 
and low wall. The pavement was of tesselated marble, the larger squares white, 
the smaller black, some pieces of which may still be seen at the gate." The 
central door would certainly make the gates seem less meaningless, but the 
latter would even then be quite inappropriate to the size of the house. It 
seems probable, too, that the former position of the door in the centre was in 
itself an innovation, since there is no reason to suppose that the plan of No. 5 




was an exception among its fellows in the Walk. I would suggest, therefore, 
that the same occupant of the house, whose ambition required a central doorway 
and a large hall, effected the transfer of these three gates and piers from some 
larger mansion to give greater distinction to his home. 

Regarding the original source of the gates nothing is known ; but 
an interesting suggestion has been made by Mr. E. L. Meinertzhagen which, 
while as yet unproved, is worth being placed on record. In the Moravian 
archives at Hernhutt in Saxony are preserved certain drawings of Lindsey 
House, Chelsea, as renovated by Count Zinzendorf in 1750. In Mr. J. J. 
England's careful drawings from the originals, published in his account of the 
Moravian Settlements, some fine iron gates are shown on the river front, which 
bear a striking general resemblance to those at present before No. 5. The piers, 
vases, two side gates, and scroll ornament are quite in agreement, but the centre 
is filled with double gates, in the drawing — as we should expect it to be — 
and the lamp-stands are supported by brackets from the piers. These gates are 
no longer at Lindsey House, and Mr. Meinertzhagen suggests that they may 
have been bought by a resident in Chelsea who lived so near, at the time of 
the relinquishment of the property by the Moravians (c. 1750). Nothing, 
indeed, seems more probable, and the peculiarity of their present situation 
would thus be fully explained. Should further research confirm the suggested 
explanation, the monogram in the gates will perhaps be found to be the remains 
of the letters E.L., the initials of Erasmus Lewis, who lived at No. 5 from 1 748 
to 1 75 1. The 1 8th century monogram was perhaps designedly ambiguous, and 
a reference to the drawing (Plate 42) will show how impossible it is to be certain 
about its interpretation. Should our surmise be incorrect and the gates be the 
original ones belonging to the house, it would be easy to maintain that the 
letters were merely two B's intertwined, the initials of Baron and Lady Bloom- 
burg, the first tenants. The ironwork is gready decayed and much of the 
decorative portion is lost. 

We have already mentioned the change in plan that the ground floor 
has undergone, corroborated, as it is, by the loss of all early work in the hall 
and front room. Of the remaining portions of the building the staircase is of 
interest; but, although more elaborate than those of Nos. 2 and 3 (having 
twisted balusters), it resembles them in giving way to the poor detail beyond 
the first flight. The back rooms and their powder-closets on the ground and 
first floors alone preserve their panelling, and on the latter, the rooms are divided 
by a lofty archway, the angle fireplace having also fluted pilasters that go the 
full height of the room on each side of the chimney-piece. There are remains 
of panelling in the bathroom on the second floor. 

Two very fine lead vases (Plate 44) rest on the front parapet of the house. 

Condition of repair. 

The house is in excellent repair. 

Historical notes. 

The names of Baron and Lady Bloomburg occur in the parish rate-books as tenants 
of No. 5 from 1718 to 1741. In 1748 Erasmus Lewis lived here and continued until 



1751 (? 1753)- Mrs. Vere Warner followed (1754-9), '"^'^ '^^^^^ ^^^ house had stood 
empty for two years it was occupied by John and afterwards Jane Pigou, whose name 
remains until 1774. In the same year came Admiral Jefferies and in 1782 we find Mary 
Spence or Spencer here. She left in 1792, and in that year the house was taken by James 
Neild, who lived here till 1814. 

Faulkner, who, apparently from a misprint, places the Neilds in No. 4 — his mistake 
being repeated in the Dictionary ofNa/iofia/ Biography — tells us that James Neild was born 
in 1 744 at Knutsford in Cheshire. He made his fortune as a jeweller and retired to 
Chelsea, where in company with his friend and neighbour the Rev. Weedon Butler, he 
conceived and carried out his many schemes of philanthropy, the two friends being both 
among the founders of the " Society for the Relief and Discharge of Persons imprisoned 
for Small Debts." They also published between them a book on the " State of Prisons 
in England, Scotland and Wales," favourably noticed in the Edinburgh Review, ]3.n. 18 14. 
Neild had property in several counties, was High Sheriff for Bucks in 1804 and was at 
the same time J. P. in Kent, Middlesex and Westminster. He married, in 1778, the 
eldest daughter of John Camden of Battersea and had two sons and a daughter. His 
wife was buried with her father in Battersea Church, where there is a monument and 
inscription lamenting her early death. 

James Neild died on February 16, 18 14, and was succeeded at his house in Chelsea 
by his younger son John Camden Neild. The elder son being disinherited and having 
gone abroad, John Camden Neild lived the life of a recluse and on his death in 1852 left 
the whole of his fortune to the Queen. Much unfriendly criticism has been directed 
against the younger Neild, but Mr. William Ascroft tells us on good authority that his 
retirement was probably due to personal disappointments, that he had a great veneration 
for the memory of his father, and that he was genuinely unconscious of having any 
relatives who had any claim upon his generosity when he left his wealth to the Crown. 
His character was undoubtedly eccentric. Educated at Cambridge, possessed of con- 
siderable knowledge of legal and general literature, and with a personal fondness for the 
classics, he yet became a confirmed miser. He inherited a fortune of some ^^2 50,000 
from his father, and he left property worth double that amount to Queen Victoria. 

Bibliographical references. 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Reginald Blunt, Handbook to Chelsea. 

Dictionary of "National Biography (James and John Camden Neild). 

Tattam's Memoirs of John Camden Neild. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3199. *Entrance gates, front view (photograph). 

3200. Entrance gates, side view (photograph). 

3201. *Entrance gates (measured drawing). 

3202. Entrance gates, monogram (full-size drawing). 

3203. Entrance gates, detail of vase on pier (photograph). 

3204. *Staircase (measured drawing and details). 

3205. Lead vases (two photographs). 

3206. *Lead vases (measured drawing of one vase). 

3207. Lead cistern (photograph of panel). 

3208. *Plan (measured drawing). 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc. 

Ground landlord, Earl Cadogan. Leaseholder, F. T. R. Bigham, Esq. 

General description and date of structure. 

No. 6 is the largest and in many ways the most interesting of the old 
houses in Cheyne Walk. Although, externally, its design seems late in character 
— on account, perhaps, of the somewhat ponderous simplicity of its detail — yet, 
it must have been building at the same time as its neighbours, since its first ten- 
ant appears in the rate-books in 171 8. The date on the lead cistern (now in 
the garden), 1 72 1, is only five years after the great garden of the Manor House 
was given over to the builders by Sir Hans Sloane. The appearance outside 
is severe, but substantial and strong, the warm-coloured brickwork with fine red 
brick cornice-mouldings and string-courses being partly hidden by trees. Every- 
thing is simple — the double wood gates with stout iron grilles,* the brick piers 
and stone ball finials, and the large front doorway with its plain overdoor, fan- 
light and flight of stone steps. Impressive as the entrance front is, it is surpassed 
by the garden elevation, which presents one of the most charming and character- 
istic London exteriors to be found. The garden at one time communicated with 
Flood Street, and this, therefore, formed a second entrance. The fine flight of 
steps, the dignified garden doorway, the wide-jointed stone paving and the 
beautifully proportioned windows give an air of distinction, which is also very 

The interior of the house shows the same simplicity and dignity. The 
ground floor is traversed from north to south by the entrance and staircase 
hall paved with black and white marble tiles in large and small squares. The 
stair is broad and imposing, with three twisted balusters to each tread, the string 
being ornamented with well-carved brackets, and newels formed of fluted 
columns with carved caps. To the left, as one enters, are two large reception 
rooms or "parlours" (back and front) with a small "powder closet" in addition, 
projecting towards the garden. To the right is another good room in front, 
used as the dining-room, the back part being occupied by a pantry and the 
secondary staircase that leads down to the basement and up to the servants' 
rooms. The passages and rooms are panelled throughout with large panels 
characteristic of the beginning of the i8th century, with the exception ot the 
top floor, which will be described immediately. The details are particularly 
simple and effective. 

All the fireplaces in the principal rooms are formed with a plain marble 
" surround," of a flat section, excepting the north-west room on the ground 
floor, where the marble is heavily moulded (8 inches wide), and is similar to that 

* The gates and piers seem to be a later addition to the house, but are quite possibly an antici- 
pation of the fashion which subsequent design followed. 

e 45 


2 2^ 






o / 

yers and Babington. 

described in Paradise Row. In the place of a chimney-piece or overmantel the 
panelling of the rooms is continued round the chimney breast, having a long 
narrow panel immediately over the fireplace and a square one above. 

Ascending the staircase we find on each half-landing a fine pair of sash 
windows with heavy glazing bars. The panelling is beautifully finished on each 
side of the stairs, which are themselves of fine workmanship. 

On the first floor the two front rooms are connected by a small apart- 
ment directly over the entrance hall, and these three form a suite of panelled 
drawing-rooms. To the east is a passage to a servants' bedroom and the 
second stairs ; to the west a small lobby, whence one enters the room over 
the back "parlour" and the "powder room" beyond. Over the door to the 
lobby is a beautiful wrought-iron grille, upon the centre of which are the arms 
of Danvers impaled with those of Babington. (Danvers : G«. a Chevron between 
three Mullets or. Cr. a Wivern or. Babington, of Rothley Temple : Ar. ten 
Torteaux 4, 3, 2, i, in chief a Label of three points az^ Behind the lobby are 
two deep cupboards entered from the back room, one being ventilated above 
the door by a wooden grille formed of balusters of very slender proportions. 
There are two more of these grilles on the first-floor landing. 

The second floor (which is the top storey) is remarkable in being pan- 
elled entirely with 1 6th and early 1 7th century panelling fixed in every variety 
of position — sometimes inverted, sometimes on its side — apparently with no 
idea of design but merely used as a covering for the walls. Some of this panelling 
is of curious detail, Jacobean in character, while other portions are quite early 
Elizabethan, with the rails chamfered above and beaded below, in the somewhat 
primitive manner of the time. There is no indication of the source of this wood- 
work, but it seems likely that it all came from one old mansion and quite pro- 
bably one in the immediate neighbourhood ; indeed, Sir Hans Sloane — through 
whose indifference to her ancient treasure Chelsea has felt her greatest losses — 
may well have torn it from the walls of his manor house and sold it to the builders, 
who were already covering the old manorial garden with bricks and mortar. 
However this may be, the panelling is undoubtedly genuine, and, being painted 
cream to match the later work, it mingles, in its interesting effect, something of 
the grotesque. 

The two fine lead rainwater heads on the entrance front are adorned 
with shields of the same material, on which the Danvers coat of arms is seen 
in low relief. 

The lead cistern, which is of excellent design, has already been men- 
tioned. It stands in the garden, where it is becoming somewhat weather-worn, 
and bears no initials or inscription beyond the date 1721. The date is the 
same as that upon the Walpole cistern, and the interlacing lines of the moulded 
panels are very similar in the two designs. 

On the garden side are one-storied projections added, probably, during 
the tenancy of Doctor Dominiceti, the Venetian doctor who has been the subject 
of so much comment and not a little criticism. His extensions to the house 
were for the purpose of providing additional " fumigatory " rooms for his baths, 
and the two apartments on the west side, approached by a small spiral stair 



from the garden, seem to be the only ones that remain. They are small square 
rooms and have windows fitted with one sash with heavy glazing bars. The 
sash being raised, slides into a slot in the thickness of the wall and so admits the 
air. The upper of the two rooms has a curious metal-lined recess (2 feet 
4 inches high, i foot 6 inches greatest width, and 9 inches deep), the shape of 
which suggests the reception of a large medicinal bottle of some kind. On the 
east is a little projecting room, carried over the area to the basement. It is 
approached from the house by a heavy door covered with iron bands and studded 
with nails, and at the north end has a door leading into the garden. This room 
seems to have formed the means of communication between the house and " the 
elegant brick and wood building " which Faulkner tells us was erected by 
Dominiceti on the east side of the garden, and which is shown in Richardson's 
Survey of Chelsea Manor^ in the British Museum (1769). We are told that it 
communicated directly with the house and was 100 feet long and 16 feet wide. 
In it " were the baths and fumigatory stoves, adjoining to which were four 
sweating bedchambers to be directed to any degree of heat." 

In the basement of the house is another door protected by iron and nails. 
The kitchen has a three-light transomed window, which seems to have been 
taken from an older house. Beyond this there is nothing specially interesting. 
The servants' staircase is of simple design, the balustrade being a diagonal 
interlacement of strips of wood, the longest portions reaching the entire length 
of each flight of steps, from the top of one newel to the base of the next. 

Condition of repair. 

The house is in excellent repair. 

Historical notes. 

No. 6 Cheyne Walk seems to have been built for Joseph Danvers, whose name appears 
in the rate-books from 17 18 to 1753 and whose family resided here until 1764. Joseph 
Danvers of Swithland, in the county of Leicester, was the son of Samuel Danvers and 
Elizabeth Morewood of Overton. He represented Boroughbridge, Bramber andTotnes in 
Parliament, and was created a baronet in 1746. He married Frances, daughter of Thomas 
Babington, Esq., of Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, and, as described above, a shield in the 
house bears the Danvers arms quartered with those of Babington. The following entry is 
in the Register of Marriages in the Chapel of the Royal Hospital : " 1748, May 26, Hon. 
John Grey (brother of the Earl of Stamford) and Lucy, daughter of the Hon. Sir John 
[? Joseph] Danvers, Bart., of Swithland, co. Leicester." Sir Joseph died in 1753 and had 
au only son and successor. Sir John Danvers, who died in i 796 without male heirs.* The 
first Lady Danvers lived at No. 6, after her husband's death until 1759, when the house 
appears in the parish books under the name of her son. Sir John, who in 1764 severed the 
connection of his family with the house, a connection which, as we have seen, had lasted 
close on half a century. 

In 1765 the house was taken by Dr. Dominiceti, who started here the medicinal 
baths which seem to have excited no little interest and considerable hostility at the time. 

* Sir John Danvers' only child Elizabeth, m.arried the Hon. Augustus Butler (brother of the 
Earl of Lanesborough), who took the name and arms of Danvers. Their son called himself Butler- 




Faulkner says, "In March, 1755, Dr. Dominiceti opened his baths at Bristol, being then 
the first of the kind in Europe ; and in May, 1 764, he took a house at Millbank ; and from 
that time till the year 1780 had upwards of sixteen thousand persons under his care. His 
baths were very costly, well made, and convenient ; and from his own publications it appears 
that he expended upwards of ^3 7,000 in erecting, contriving and completing his house and 
baths in Cheyne Walk. Among his visitors and patients at Chelsea was his late Royal Highness 
Edward Duke of York, who entrusted the preservation of his life and the recovery of his 
health (says the Doctor) to his sole direction for above a month ; and that in direct oppo- 
sition to the advice of the physicians and surgeons of the Royal Household." 

Dominiceti's greatest champion was Sir John Fielding, the blind magistrate, half-brother 
of the novelist, who published a vindication of the Doctor's practice. To his patron he 
dedicated the pamphlet entitled "A plan for extending the use of artificial water baths, pumps, 
&c., by Bartholomew de Dominiceti. — Chelsea, Nov. i, 1771." Faulkner prints several 
extracts from both Fielding's and Dominiceti's pen, and he further reminds us of the enter- 
taining discussion recorded by Boswell wherein Dr. Johnson expresses his contempt for the 
Chelsea physician, declares " there is nothing in all his boasted system," and to an apologist, 
— doubtless the biographer himself — makes use of the now famous but obviously unfair 
retort : " Well, sir, go to Dominiceti and get fumigated, and be sure that the steam be 
directed to thy head, for that is the peccant part." 

Dr. Dominiceti was of a noble Venetian family. Their name is inscribed in The 
Golden Book of Venice, as having received a diploma of nobility from the Emperor 
Ferdinand III. dated 20 March 1643, and confirmed by the Senate of the Venetian 
Republic in 1778. In the Gentleman s Magazine for Jan. 1829 is inserted a copy of the 
certificate of his rank which had been signed by Ralph Bigland, Garter King of Arms. 
His name appears for the last time in the rate-books in i 782, when it seems he left Chelsea, 
as Faulkner states, hopelessly in debt. Two portraits of the Doctor, his prescriptions, 
pamphlets, &c., were purchased at the public sale of his effects by Mr. Powell, who lived 
at No. I Cheyne Walk, and was the son of Dominiceti's chief assistant. By the courtesy 
of Mrs. Domenichetti and her son, the Rev. R. H. Domenichetti, who are closely related 
to the Chelsea doctor's family, we have been enabled to print a portrait of Dr. Dominiceti 
from an engraving in their possession (Plate 45). Mrs. Domenichetti has also an interesting 
caricature of the Doctor receiving his patients, and a copy of his Medical Anecdotes, a 
large octavo volume, which includes his chief writings on medicine. In it he boldly traverses 
many of the opinions current at the time, and protests against the state into which the 
practice of medicine had fallen. The persistent attacks of his enemies no doubt compelled 
him to adopt strong counter measures of self-advertisement, but he had many good supporters 
like Sir John Fielding, and in many ways he proved himself much in advance of his times. 

The break in the parish rate-books occurs the year after Dr. Dominiceti's departure, and 
the next entry in 1796 shows the name of the Rev. Weedon Butler. We have already noticed 
that he was living in No. 4 Cheyne Walk in 1782, and it is probable that very shortly 
after this he moved into the house under consideration. He had already started his 
fashionable school, of which Faulkner tells us he was master for 40 years. He left Chelsea 
for Gayton in 1 8 1 4. Weedon Butler, the elder, had early in life been articled to a 
solicitor in London, but afterwards took orders. For some years he acted as assistant 
to Dr. William Dodd, who was executed in 1777 for forging the name.of Lord Chesterfield, 
and whom he followed as morning preacher at Charlotte Street Chapel, Pimlico. In \ 778 
he was lecturer at St. Clement's, Eastcheap, and St. Martin Orgers ; he was known as a 
miscellaneous writer. His eldest son, who had the same name, and was also a clergyman, 
succeeded him in the school at Chelsea. Another son, the Rev. George Butler, D.D., head- 
master of Harrow School and Dean of Peterborough, in his turn left four highly able sons, 
one of them the present master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Mr. Francis Galton, who 
married one of the family, in his lately published reminiscences has referred to their 
intellectual distinction. 

The house has been for some time the residence of Rafe O. Leycester, Esq., and 
has only just passed into the hands of its present occupant. 



Bibliographical references. 

Bartholomew de Dominiceti, Medical Anecdotes of the last Thirty Years (London, 1 78 1). 

A Plan, etc. dedicated to Sir John Fielding, Knight, Chelsea, 1771. 
James Boswell, Life of Dr. Johnson. 

London Chronicle (Oct. 29, 1768, Sept. 18, 1766) ; advertisements of Dr. Dominiceti. 
S/. James's Chronicle (May 13, 1769). 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 
Gentleman s Magazine (January 1829). 
Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 
Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 
Reginald Blunt, An Historical Handbook to Chelsea (1900). 
Dictionary of I^ational Biography (Rev. Weedon Butler and his sons). 
Annie R. Butler, 'Nearly a Hundred Years Ago (1907). 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3210. *Plan of ground floor (measured drawing). 

3211. *View from Cheyne Walk (photograph). 

3212. *View of entrance gates (photograph). 

3213. Detail of gates (photograph). 

3214. Detail of railings (photograph). 

3215. *Gates and railings (measured drawing). 

3216. *Front doorway (wash drawing). 

3217. *Garden front (photograph). 

3218. *Garden doorway (photograph). 

3219. *Hall, looking towards front door (photograph). 

3220. *Hall and staircase (photograph). 

3221. *Staircase from hall (wash drawing). 

3222. *Staircase and panelling (complete measured drawing and details). 

3223. *Dining-room (photograph). 

3224. * Staircase from first floor landing (photograph). 

3225. *View showing iron grille, first floor (photograph). 

3226. *Iron grille, first floor (measured drawing). 

3227. *Wood grille, first floor landing (photograph). 

3228. West drawing-room (photograph). 

3229. Staircase and panelling from second floor (photograph). 

3230. *Lead shield on rain-water head (photograph). 

3231. *Lead cistern. 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, leaseholder, etc. 

Ground landlord. Earl Cadogan. Leaseholder, Lord Courtney of Penwith. 

General description and date of structure. 

We now pass over the five houses between No. 6 and Manor Street, which 
have been rebuilt upon the site of six or seven* houses of the same date as 
those described above. Regarding the site of Nos. 13 and 14, immediately 
west of Manor Street, a lease, dated 1 7 1 7, between Sir Hans Sloane on the one 
hand and John Witt and Jeremiah Gray on the other, declares it to be the fifth 
piece of land eastward from the Manor House, which is useful in confirming the 
evidence we already possess of the position of the latter. The plot is described 
as having a frontage of 40 feet on Cheyne Walk, and is bounded on the east by 
the newly-made Manor Street and on the west by land built upon by Joseph 
Huddleston. Nos. 13 and I4, formerly one house,t and according to the 
rate-books held by Jeremiah Gray 171 8 to 1 721, have been recently rebuilt as 
two residences, and we therefore pass on to the house built by Huddleston, 
namely. No. 15. 

This house, at one time called Carlton House, bears a striking resem- 
blance to No. 4 Cheyne Walk, both in its appearance and general arrangement. 
The front elevation has four windows on each of the upper floors, the front 
door is in the same relative position, and the same features are prominent, such 
as the tall brick pilasters, the well-designed doorway, and the beautiful wrought- 
iron gates. The two plans seem to have been identical, with one important 
exception : — No. 1 5 does not appear, in any of the early plans of Chelsea, to 
have possessed the double "powder" room projection which is the characteristic 
of No. 4. The plan of the latter is, however, very useful in helping us to 
understand the changes in No. 15, the interior of which has been much re- 

The wrought-iron gate and railings are among the three best examples 
of Chelsea ironwork. A reference to the measured drawing (Plate 6^) will show 
the delightful design of the panels both within and each side of the gate, and 
also of the scroll work that crests the railing. All the ironwork over the gate is 
new, the original work having long ago disappeared, but it will be seen that it 
has been skilfully made up on exactly the lines of the two pieces of scroll-work 
over the railing, being surmounted by a gilded dolphin (Lord Courtney's crest) 
and having his monogram. The gates and railings stand between two 
lofty brick piers with stone cornice and finials, the proportions of which, no 
doubt, belong properly to thegates of the adjoining Queen's House, since there 
are only three piers, and these of similar design, for the two houses. The door- 
way is simply treated, two fluted pilasters supporting a plain entablature with 

* The number seems to have varied, as occasionally two houses have been thrown into one. 
"I" This was the " Yorkshire Grey " tavern which gave its name to the " Yorkshire Grey 
Stairs " on the old riverside. 



eight triglyphs, and opens into a square hall precisely on the plan of No. 4. 

The stair is quite similar in its general lines, but there is a noticeable difference 

in the details : the brackets beneath the end of the 
treads are here finelycarved, but instead of twisted 
balusters the designer has adhered to the plainer 
type shown in the illustrations of the stair at 
No. 3 (Plate 32), and there are only two balusters to 
each tread. The cornice above the stair is carved. 
Bearing in mind the plan of No. 4, we will 
now examine briefly the rest of the house. The first 
room on the ground floor occupies the old front 
room and halfthe long apartment which originally 
stretched right across the back of the house. Out 
of this opens the powder room, which has been 
somewhat altered. A second door from the end 
of the hall leads into a large dining-room, formed 
out of the other half of the long back room to- 
gether with an extensive addition of the same width 
projecting into the garden. On the second floor 
the arrangement is similar, the drawing-room oc- 
cupying the space immediately above the former 
of the rooms just described and partly over the hall, 
showing the powder room opening from it. The 
back room, however, is not extended over the new 
portion of the dining-room but stops short at the 
original wall. This little room retains its panel- 
ling and cornice. The front part of the drawing- 
room has an enriched cornice with modillions, 
very much like the later houses in Cheyne Walk, 
which were built in 1 760. The architraves of the 
doors and the panels of the window shutters are 
also enriched with carving. The back part of the 
room has, however, a plain cornice, and a beam 

across the ceiling gives the line of the original partition. The main stair stops 

at the first floor and the second floor is gained by the smaller staircase as in No. 4. 

Here, in the bedrooms, the walls have been papered on canvas stretched over 

the panelling, except in the two front rooms, which show their early character. 

Beyond a few signs here and there, however, of the real age of the house the 

walls and their decoration have been quite modernised. 


Condition of repair. 

The house is in very good repair. 

Historical notes. 

The first tenant of this house was Captain, afterwards Admiral Sir John Balchen, who after 
having served in the West Indies and off the Spanish coast, and being captured by the French 



in 1708 and again in 1 709, accompanied Sir George Byng to the Mediterranean in 1 7 1 8, the 
year before he took his Chelsea house. Made Rear-Admiral 1728, Vice- Admiral 1734, and 
Admiral of the White 1743 ; he was knighted 1744, and in the same year went down with 
his ship, the "Victory," in the Channel. His home was at No. 15 until 1742 with the 
exception of the years 1724 and 1725-1 728, when he seems to have sublet it respectively to 
Captain Reginald and Captain Leonard Wynn.* Sir John Balchen was followed by Commo- 
dore, afterwards Vice-Admiral Temple West, who married a daughter of his predecessor. 
His name is associated with two failures. In the action ofFToulon, February i ith, i 743-4, 
he commanded the sixty-gun ship " Warwick," which was one of the ships forming the 
head of the English line, and kept aloof from the French, merely firing on them from a 
distance. For this he was tried and cashiered, but reinstated by order of Council, May 
1 2th, 1746. In the action off Minorca in 1756 he was second in command to Admiral 
John Byng, who was defeated, and in consequence condemned to death by court-martial and 
shot for alleged neglect of duty. Temple West was superseded, but no blame could be laid 
at his door. He was afterwards promoted to be Vice-Admiral. He left Cheyne Walk in 
1755, two years before his death. 

The following names then occur in the rate-books : — 

1756. Catherine Duncombe. 

1 75 7-1 760. Russian Ambassador. 
1 76 1. Thomas Hurnal. 

1 762-1 763. Joseph Manger. 
1764. Francis Dandrldge. 

1 765-1 779. Thomas Kynaston."]' 
1 780-1 783. James Emblem. 

1790-1792. Samuel Cross. 

Henry Thomas Ryall (i 8 1 i-i 867), engraver, lived here (Ascroft MSS.). Mr. Beaver 
tells us in his Memorials of Old Chelsea that No. 1 5 was tenanted in 1 869 by Mr. William 
Lawson, a Scottish portrait painter. Two sons, Malcolm Lawson and F. W. Lawson, 
followed respectively the professions of music and painting, the third, Cecil G. Lawson, 
became an artist of greater repute, and his work is closely associated with Chelsea. His 
first appearance at the Royal Academy was in 1870, when his "Cheyne Walk, Chelsea," 
a view taken from a window of his father's house, was hung " on the line." He also 
exhibited in 1871 "A Summer Evening at Cheyne Walk," and in 1877 "A View 
from Don Saltero's in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, temp. 1777." He married in 1879 
Constance, daughter of John Birnie Philip the sculptor, whose sister, after being married 
to E. W. Godwin, became the wife of J. M. Whistler. 

Bibliographical references. 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 
Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 
Reginald Blunt, Handbook to Chelsea (1900). 
• Dictionary of 'National Biography (Admiral Sir John Balchen, Admiral Temple West, 
Henry Thomas Ryall, Cecil Gordon Lawson). 

* Faulkner places Admiral Balchen in Little Chelsea. He is supposed to have taken the house 
of Sir John Cope after the death in 1723 of Admiral Wishart who was living there. If so, he lived 
here while the Wynns were occupying his house in Cheyne Walk [see Beaver, p. 333). 

■j" Faulkner has " Kynaston, Esq., in the Commission of the Peace for Middlesex " as living 

in the parish in 1774. 



In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3232. General view from Cheyne Walk (photograph). 

3233. *Another view (photograph). 

3234. *Wrought-iron gate and railings (measured drawing; 

3235. *Detai], centre panel, wrought-iron gate (photograph). 

3236. *Front doorway (photograph). 

3237. Front doorway (measured drawing). 

3238. Staircase (photograph). 

3239. Drawing-room, general view (photograph). 

3240. Drawing-room, another view (photograph). 

3241. Drawing-room chimney-piece (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 






Ground landlord, leaseholders, etc. 

Ground landlord. Earl Cadogan. Leaseholder, the Hon. Sir William 

General description and date of structure. 

Queen's House is the second house in point of size in Cheyne Walk, 
but although it has lo feet less in frontage than No. 6, and has not enjoyed the 
same immunity from change, its design is more striking and original, and its 

features excite more interest 

GARDEN ^'^ ^^^ ^7^^ °^ ^^^ artist and 

DOOR connoisseur. Its architectural 

pre-eminence depends very 
largely upon the wealth and 
beauty of its ironwork, both 
within and without, which is 
equal to the very best of the 
kind. There is a peculiar fas- 
cination in the study of the 
design of wrought ironwork, 
a craft which has played such 
a conspicuous part in the 
development of English ar- 
chitecture during the later 
Renaissance, and nowhere 
among examples of similar 
size is there a better in- 
stance to be seen of its chief 
characteristics — namely, fine 
grouping, skilful contrast of 
plain bars with panels of scroll 
work, graceful outline, and 
beautiful workmanship — 
than in the gate and railings 
of Queen's House. We have 
before remarked that Chelsea 
is rich in wrought ironwork. 
Not only is this the best ex- 
ample, but it is also the best preserved. There were other gates in Cheyne Walk, 
just east of Manor Street, which, we may conclude from the evidence of old 







drawings, were from the same hand as those at Queen's House, but they have 
disappeared, and the other ironwork which we have considered lacks the strong 
personal character which the best work displays.* Attention should be directed 
to the clever way in which the gate is built up,with its arched bar and ornamented 
spandrils ; to the fine pilasters on each side with four stout standards sur- 
mounted by good cast-iron vases ; to the masterly lines of the cresting, enclos- 
ing the monogram of the first owner, Richard Chapman, in which the delicate 
leaf ornament is properly subordinated to the stronger lines of the main curves ; 
and, lastly, to the excellence of the spearheads on the railings and the particularly 
fine panels that divide the latter into bays. 

Within the gates is a paved court, and a flight of five steps leads over 
the basement area to the front door, which stands within a recessed porch. To 
these steps there are some delicate little railings, consisting of panels of wrought- 
iron scroll-work with two bars between each. 

The external appearance of the house is much as it was in 1 7 1 7 when, 
having been erected by John Witt, the builder, who acquired so many of the 
plots of the old Manor garden, it was leased to Richard Chapman. The chief 
alteration, which, perhaps, has become to many Chelsea residents its most familiar 
feature, is the large bay window to the first and second floors that has been 
inserted in the centre of the front elevation, and which, although made of 
timber and plastered over, has been coloured red to match the brickwork as 
far as possible. Formerly the house had a plain characteristic Georgian front 
that depended for its effect on its well-proportioned windows, on its broad 
rusticated pilasters and string-courses of brick and the bold pediment brought 
forward upon carved brackets. The little figure of Mercury which used to 
crown the pediment [see Plate 67), and had endeared itself to many a passer-by, 
was added during the tenancy of Rev. H. R. Haweis, but during the recent 
restoration of the house by Mr. Edwin L. Lutyens it fell to pieces, being 
merely a figure cast in some ephemeral composition. Queen's House and No. 4 
Cheyne Walk are the only houses which have the very large key-stones to the 
arches over the windows. 

Passing for a moment to the back of the house we see that the quaint 
garden front is in striking contrast to the one towards the road. The i8th 
century element seems somehow lacking, and the grouping of the two bold wings 
and deeply-recessed centre is reminiscent rather of the Lincoln's Inn gateway in 
Chancery Lane than of a Georgian front. The effect is, perhaps, accidental and 
due to the unusual plan, for one recognises in the projections on the wings the 
idea of simple brick pilasters, and although there is no cornice the brick string- 
courses are carried round as in the front. Its unusual character may, however, 
have given rise to the name of " Tudor House," which it bore until altered 
by Mr. Haweis. In the view on Plate 72 it may be seen that one or two of the 
old sashes remain, but the large mullioned window shown on the ground floor, a 

* Mr. Starkie Gardner is pursuing an interesting search into the identity of the various 
prominent smiths of the i8th century. He has pointed out the similarity of treatment in the 
charming gates which used to adorn the little Emmanuel Hospital in Westminster and those at 
Queen's House, Chelsea. 


tasteless modern insertion, has been removed since the photograph was taken 
and replaced by three sash windows to match the old. 

Before we leave this part of the house we may notice a more successful 
addition to the building in the shape of the"monogram"railingwith its finely cast 
masks, which is shown in the view as bordering the area wall, but has since been 
removed to the position of the plain rail over the large centre window. The 

i^ 4 -4 ^ 


centre portion of this railing is entirely composed of the interlacing initials RC, 
written backwards and forwards — these being the letters that are found upon the 
gate — and it would seem by its design to be of about the same date as the house. 
We understand, however, that it was a fortunate "find" of Mr. Plimmer, a recent 
tenant, and that he bought it because of its appropriateness, "To him that hath 
shall be given," and so Queen's House has added to its store of good ironwork. 
Two or three beautiful little iron balconies may be seen in their original position 
on the garden front. 

We will now turn to the interior. The first door opens upon a little 
hall, paved diagonally with black and white squares. On either side is a front 
sitting-room, panelled from floor to ceiling, and with two circular-headed windows 
towards the street. On the authority of Sir Edward Burne-Jones we are told 
that the overmantel in the east room, formed of Japanese lacquer designs, was 
put there by Rossetti, and that he had lined the fireplace with beautiful Dutch 
tiles. Madame Blumenthal, who occupied the house until 1908, found that the 
latter had been taken away, and she has placed there some fine tiles of her own 
collecting. The west room was restored by Mr. Walter Cave, architect. He 
designed the fireplace with a bold architrave, in keeping with the old work. It 
has also been adorned with Dutch tiles. 

Passing out of the hall through a deep archway, within which, on either 
side, is a recessed seat, one enters a passage leading right and left and having 
a door immediately in front which opens into the dining-room. The passage 
communicates with two staircases, one at each end, of which that on the west 



leads to the first floor only, while the other connects the basement with all the 
upper floors. The latter, or eastern stair, is the most remarkable, and the type 
is one that is extremely rare. It is a wood winding-stair, partly circular in plan, 
with a beautiful balustrade of forged and hammered iron, and besides this — a 
fact that emphasises its uniqueness — the ends of the treads are exquisitely carved 
in the form of brackets, which vary in size as they adapt themselves to the 
curving string, the enrichmentsbeingof the same excellence from the basement 
to the second floor. The design of the staircase is most ingenious, and to those 
who appreciate the application of iron to this purpose it is very beautiful. In 
seeking an example to which we can compare its character and detail we can 
only cite the garden balustrade to No. 44 Great Ormond Street, which, until its 
removal, was the subject of so much admiration, and which possessed very similar 
finials to the standards or " newels." 

The original western and principal staircase disappeared many years ago ; 
Mr. Cave found one of early Victorian date, which he removed. It occupied a 
space not very much larger than the spiral stair, for between it and the north wall 
was a vestibule leading to the garden, and above, at the height of the half landing, 
a small room, used at one time as a chapel or oratory, which exactly filled the 
west wing. Mr. Cave's staircase has since been replaced by a larger one from 
the design of Mr. Lutyens, and for this purpose the small room has been thrown 
open and its space added to the landing. The balusters used in the new stair- 
case are old twisted examples from a house in Battersea on the Norfolk estate. 
The landing retains the little chimney-piece of the original room ; French 
windows lead from it on to a small balcony overlooking the garden. The 
panelling here is new and designed by Mr. Lutyens. 

To return to the ground floor, the dining-room, which was Rossetti's 
studio, is now some 26 feet long by 20 feet wide, including the space between the 
two wings of the house ; but we are inclined to think that it was not originally 
so large. These two wings projecting towards the garden suggest at first sight 
the two projecting powder rooms of No. 4 ; they are, however, much larger in 
proportion to the building, and there is no evidence to show that they were ever 
ante-rooms to another apartment. It seems rather that Queen's House showed 
a step of progress in the matter of design and in the utilisation of the projecting 
wing, generally used as an anteroom, but here to be incorporated in a larger 
room as in this dining-room or to become a separate self-contained apartment. 
This view is supported by the position of the fireplace, which is in the centre of 
the east wall. The space occupied by the circular staircase causes a recess in the 
dining-room wall, which is skilfully covered by an arcade of two columns and two 
pilasters supporting three arches. This, as well as the whole panelling of the 
room, is beautifully designed and executed. One regrets that the old chimney- 
piece has gone, but the present one from the design of Mr. Walter Cave is in 
perfect keeping with the character of the room. 

On the first floor the house is again divided by a passage, which connects 
the two staircases. This passage is ceiled with the plaster imitation of inter- 
secting vaulting, which was not uncommon in the i8th century, and has at 
each end a circular archway with curious spandrel formed by the intersection 



of two circles in an oval. The drawing-room, which occupies the whole front 
of the house, is a fine room nearly 40 feet in length, and is delightfully 
panelled. The new bay adds to its size and interest. Here, as in the dining- 
room, the chimney-piece was inserted by Mr. Cave for Mr. Frank Lowrey. 
On the garden side are two other rooms, the centre being used as a boudoir 
and having a good chimney-piece, the other as a bedroom, with a mantel of 
Adam design. Both rooms have panelling throughout. 

The rooms on the second floor have plain square framed panelling 
without mouldings. The present third floor was added recently by Mr. Lutyens. 
The basement, of which much has been said in various books on Chelsea, pre- 
sents nothing more remarkable than the usual sturdy building of the period, 
and some of the i8th century "vaulting" above alluded to. 

In conclusion, a note may be added regarding the authorship of the 
design. While dismissing its ascription to Wren as not only improbable, but 
not borne out by the character of the design, we may readily admit that it 
was the work of an artist of no inconsiderable merit. Vanbrugh has been 
put forward, but the detail is surely from a lighter hand than his. As far as 
the close of the second decade in the i8th century public taste in architecture 
had been maintained at a high level, many men were skilled in the contem- 
porary style, and we are inclined to think that such an excellent work as Queen's 
House would be within the scope of some comparatively unknown architect. 

Condition of repair. 

The house is in excellent repair. 

Historical notes. 

It is our first duty, following the lead of Mr. Randall Davies, to whose researches we 
owe so much, to expose the falsity of the legend which connected Catherine of Braganza 
with this house. The initials R.C. on the gate are undoubtedly those of Richard Chapman, 
described in the original lease as "of St. Clement Danes, appothecary," for whom the 
house was built in 1717 ; but the fable which arose from the misinterpretation of the 
letters* once spread is hard to kill, and whether its inception was due to Mr. Haweis or 
not, he it was who effectively crystallised it for future generations by changing the old 
name of Tudor House into the misleading title "Queen's House." The name will 
probably persist, but the legend must certainly be discarded. 

Richard Chapman lived here from 1719 until 1724. The house remained empty 
for three years, and was then taken by Alexander Spottiswood, or Spotswood, Colonial 
Governor. He had fought at Blenheim in the Earl of Bath's regiment and obtained a 
Lieutenant-Colonel's Commission. In 17 10 he was made Governor of Virginia, being 
superseded in 1722. He died in 1740, shortly after his promotion to the rankof Major- 
General. His time of residence in this house was from 1728 to 1732. The lease seems 
then to have been taken over by Peter Elers, whose name appears in connection with the 
house from 1733 to 1742, when the break in the lists occurs. He, perhaps, did not reside 
here except for the first year. The house was empty from 173 5-1 742. 

The names that follow in the rate-books are these : — 
1 748-1 749. Martha Windham Ash. 

1750. Earl of Sutherland. 

1 75 1. Peter Elers. 
1754. Dove & Co. 

* It was read " Catharina Regina. 



1 756-1 76 1. Philip Bellie. 

1763— 1764. John Christian Newman and afterwards Mrs. Newman. 

1 765-1 770. Dr. John Forbes. 

1771-1783. Gryffid Price. 

1790— 1797. Charlotte Bowes. 

1798-1802. Osborne Denton and afterwards Mrs. Denton. 

Miss Meteyard, the biographer of the Wedgwoods, has said that the brothers Elers 
(fl. 1690— 1730), who established pottery works near Burslem, were responsible for laying 
the foundations of the Chelsea manufactory also. These Elers came to London with the 
Prince of Orange, and it is doubtful whether they were ever connected with Chelsea. 
Peter Elers, who lived at Queen's House, was the son of Peter Elers the elder, who settled 
in England at the accession of George I. He was of an ancient German baronial family. 
Peter Elers of Chelsea died in 1753 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He married 
Dorothy, youngest daughter of Peter Carew, of Carew Hall, Pembrokeshire. His son George 
and grandson Carew are both buried at Chelsea. 

Gryffid Price, the subject of a little eulogy by Faulkner, and by him styled one of His 
Majesty's Counsellors at Law, died at his house in Paradise Row in 1787. It seems, there- 
fore, that on leaving Queen's House in 1783 he moved to Paradise Row. 

Mr. Wm. Ascroft writes : "At the end of the i 8th century and the beginning of the 
last Captain Denton lived here, who purchased at the sale of Don Saltero (1799) some of 
the curiosities. Afterwards, the Bayfords, who kept their yacht and took part in the sailing 
matches. One of them was distinguished as an amateur sculler, and was the first to win, 
in 1830, the Wingfield sculls. . . . Some of the sons were well-known proctors. Edward 
Irving used to visit here, and found in them staunch supporters of his Catholic Apostolic 

"Mr. N. Handford, architect and steward of the manor, lived here. He designed and 
constructed the Cadogan Pier, and also made designs for the river embankment. His sons, 
with the sons of the rector, Charles and Henry Kingsley, used to carry on their chemical 
electrotyping and other experiments in the basement. Mr. Geo. Handford, architect, suc- 
ceeded his father as steward, and he formed a large collection of portraits, some of which 
were exhibited at the National Portrait Exhibition at South Kensington and Burlington 
House. The majority were sold in a two-days' sale at Christie's." 

In 1862 Dante Gabriel Rossetti took Queen's House, and with him lived for a short 
time his brother William Rossetti and Algernon Charles Swinburne. Rossetti had taken 
a fancy to the house, and had asked, it seems, several of his friends to join him in occupy- 
ing it. In addition to his brother and Swinburne, George Meredith accepted his invitation, 
but he never lived here, as he himself has taken the trouble to point out, in answer to 
several statements to the contrary. Rossetti lived here, and continued to occupy the house, 
for the most part by himself, almost to the close of his lifetime. Much has been written 
of his residence in Chelsea, of his collections of old furniture and pictures, of his bijou 
menagerie in the beautiful gardens of Queen's House. He died in 1882, and five years 
later the memorial fountain which stands in the Embankment Gardens opposite to the 
house was unveiled by Mr. Holman Hunt. 

Later occupants of Queen's House have been the Rev. H. R. Haweis, Mr. Frank 
Lowrey, Mr. Henry George Plimmer and the late Mr. Jacques Blumenthal, under whose 
direction the last alterations were made by the well-known architect, Mr. Edwin L. 
Lutyens. Madame Blumenthal parted with the house to Sir William Pickford in 1908. 

Biographical references. 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Reginald Blunt, Handbook to Chelsea (1900). 

Randall Davies, Pall Mall Gaxette (September zj-th, 1906). 

Hall Caine, Record and Study (1882). 

Dictionary 0/ National Biography (D. G. Rossetti). 

Eliza Meteyard, Life ofjosiah Wedguiood, 2 vols. (London, 1865-6). 



In the committee's ms. collection are — 















♦General view from the east (photograph). 

General view from the west (photograph). 
*Lower part of house and gate (photograph). 
*Wrought-iron gate and railings (measured drawing). 
*Wrought-iron gate (photograph). 

View of gate from garden (photograph). 

Another view of same (photograph). 

Gate railings and piers (photograph). 

Panel of railings (photograph). 
*Back view of house (photograph). 
*Iron " monogram " railing (photograph). 
*Iron " monogram " (drawing). 
*Mask from same (photograph). 
*Iron railing to steps (photograph). 
*Hall from dining-room (photograph). 

Hall, another view (photograph). 

Dining-room, fireplace (photograph). 

Dining-room, arcade (photograph). 

Present wood staircase (photograph). 

Wood staircase, detail (drawing). 
*Iron staircase, from first floor (photograph). 

Iron staircase, another view (photograph). 
*Iron staircase, detail of carving (photograph). 
♦Passage, first floor, showing iron stair (photograph). 
*Part of drawing-room (photograph). 

Drawing-room, bay window (photograph). 
■72. Drawing-room panelling (four sheets) (measured drawings). 
■75. Garden, three views (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 




Ground landlord, leaseholders, etc. 

Ground landlord. Earl Cadogan. Leaseholders, No. 1 7, Richard le B. 
Rathbone, Esq. ; No. 18, L. K. Hall, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

General description and date of structure. 

Both these houses were built in 171 7, and occupied the two first plots 
of the Great Garden, eastward from the Manor House. Indeed, No. 1 8 actually- 
adjoined the great house itself, and it may be seen that the frontage line of the 
existing buildings changes at this point. The two houses have been completely 
altered since ; it has even been stated that they have been rebuilt, but on the 
authority of Mr. William Ascroft, who was an eye witness of the alterations in 
1867, we are able to modify that statement. Sufficient of the structural work 
of the old houses remains to allow us to disregard their renovation, and to feel 
that they are not quite lost to us. The houses were raised a storey, their fittings 
and appointments were changed, and the canopied balcony added. No features 
of any antiquity are left to detain our interest. The importance of the houses 
lies solely in their history. 

Condition of repair. 

Both buildings are in very good repair. 

Historical notes. 

Of the two houses, the one which has played an amusing 'and not unimportant part 
in Chelsea's history is No. 1 8, still called Don Saltero's after the first tenant, the enterprising 
and versatile James Salter. We will, however, first give the list of residents in No. 1 7 
during the i8th century as displayed in the parish books. 
Occupants of No. 1 7 Cheyne Walk : — 

1 71 8-1 740. Thomas Middleton, the apothecary. 
1 741-1742. Mr. Wheeler. 

1 748-1 749. Mrs. Selden. 

1750-1751. Mr. Norris. 

1754-1755. G. F. Guidott. 

1 756-1 760. John Pigou. 

1761-1778. Elizabeth Addis. 

1779-1793. Elizabeth Farrow. 
Mr. Ascroft says Thomas Attwood (i 765-1 838), pupil of Mozart, organist of St. 
Paul's 1796, and of the Chapel Royal 1836, lived here. Sir John Goss {see p. 37) was a 
pupil of Dr. Attwood. 

No. 1 8 Cheyne Walk was for the greater part of a century the home of the curious 
museum and tavern known as Don Saltero's Coffee House. The proprietor of this establish- 
ment, James Salter, was at one time a servant of Sir Hans Sloane, whom he accompanied 

f 61 


on his travels, and to this may be due his acquisition in 171 8 of so fine a site as that 
adjoining the Manor House, when Sloane bought his Chelsea property. However that 
may be, Salter was in Chelsea long before this and his cofFee-house had already acquired 
great reputation. The interest of the subject is sufficient apology for the following brief 
resume of its history, and at the outset we must confess ourselves as once more indebted 
to the researches of Mr. Randall Davies for our main facts. Faulkner tells us that the 
name "Don Saltero "* first appeared in the newspapers on June 22, 1723, in the form 
of some verses over that signature written from The Chelsea Knackatory. The lines begin 
thus : — 

" Sir, fifty years since to Chelsea great, 
From Rodman on the Irish main 
I strolled ..." 
which would date Salter's first appearance in Chelsea to the year 1673. This has been 
accepted by the writer in the Dictionary of 'National Biography. In 1682 occurs the record 
of his daughter May's baptism, and in 1687 that of his son John. In 1684—5 his name 
appears in the rate-lists as the occupant of a small house in Lombard Street, the southern 
portion of which was destroyed at the time of malting the Embankment. From 1695 to 
1707 Salter appears in conjunction with Edward Hatfield as living in the row by the 
Church, a circumstance to which we shall refer later on in dealing with Prospect Place. 
In 1 708 he had moved again, and was in occupation of the corner house in Danvers 
Street (the eastern corner, rebuilt, and now a baker's shop). Here he stayed until 171 7, 
and the next year we find him at No 18 Cheyne Walk. 

The first reference to the cofFee-house is in a letter of Anthony Cope's, who lived 
at Church Place, in Church Lane, to Moses Goodyear, dated 1697, from Venice, in which 
he says : " Forget me not at Salter's in the next bowl." This proves that Salter was carry- 
ing on business at the corner house in Church Row or Prospect Place, where Lawrence 
Street meets Cheyne Walk, and where the Cheyne Hospital now stands. In 171 5, too, 
during his residence in Danvers Street, our proprietor is described as " James Salter, the 
cofFeeman." In 1708 Salter entertained Richard Steele, who wrote the well-known 
description of the tavern in The Tat/er, No. 34. 

The ampler quarters in Cheyne Walk saw the final establishment of "Don Saltero's" 
reputation. His tavern was frequented by all the literati of the day, and his Chelsea friends 
found a warm place for his shop in their affections. His reputation as a mixer of punch 
was very high ; he could also shave, bleed, draw teeth, and play a little on the fiddle, and 
every year he added stranger oddities to his queer mimic museum, from which he probably 
got as much amusement as his many visitors. People vied with one another in presenting 
strange curios with the most impossible inscriptions to please their host who had not scrupled 
to advertise himself as a "gimcrack whim collector." So he entertained Sir John Cope and 
Narcissus Luttrell of Little Chelsea, the annalist, Vice-Admiral Munden and Benjamin 
Franklin, and a multitude of other well-known men, till his death in 1728. He was buried 
at Chelsea on September 1 1 th of that year. 

From the 38th edition of "A Catalogue of the Rarities to be seen at Don Saltero's 
Coffee House in Chelsea " we extract the following " Complete list of Benefactors " to 
his "Coffee Room of Varieties" as of interest since it contains many i8th century residents 
of Chelsea : — 

Mr. Atwood. Capt. Barbet. Miss Anne Bookey. 

Mr. Atkinson. Mrs. Barham. Mr. Barbes. 

Mr. Richard Arnold. Mr. Barodell. Mr. Bird. 

Mr. Paul Archer. Charles Bertie, Esq. Mr. Campbell. 

Duke of Buccleugh. Mr. Bedell. Mr. Clark. 

Sir John Balchen. Mr. Bennet. Sir John Cope, Bart. 

* It is said that Vice-Admiral Munden glorified Salter's name to that of Don Saltero. Steele 
comments on the Spanish terminology in The Tatler, and jestingly derives Salter's descent from the 
barber in Don Quixote. 



Sir John Cope, jun., Bart. 

Charles Cope, Esq. 

Anthony Cope, Esq. 

Mans. Cardonnel, Esq. 

Sir Robert Cotton, Bart. 

Mr. Crispin. 

Captain Crompton. 

Mr. Robert Cheeic. 

Mr. R. S. Cotton, sen. 

Mr. R. S. Cotton, jun. 

Commissary Culliford. 

Miss Harriet Cowper. 

Mr. Coggs. 

Sir Thomas de Veil. 

Charles Delasaye, Esq. 

Mr. Dennis. 

Sir Francis Drake. 

Captain Dunbar. 

Mr. Dean. 

Peter Elders, Esq. [?Elers] 

Mr. Edwards. 

Mr. Fouace. 

Captain Flower. 

Martin Folkes, Esq., R.S.P. 

Mr. Franks. 

Mrs. Freer. 

Mr. Thomas Fawcet. 

Captain Gascoigne. 

Mrs. Garmson. 

Mr. Moses Goodyear. 

Mr. Hadley. 

Mr. Harrison. 

Thomas Haynes, Esq. 

Miss Howard. 

Lady Humphrey. 

Mr. Hunter. 

Mr. Hickman. 

Mr. Holford. 

Mr. Hoye. 

Mr. Hunton. 

Dr. Inglis. 

Mr. John Jones. 

Mr. Jonson. 

Mr. Kinnard. 

Mr. Lambert. 

Capt. Lesly. 

Mr. Leopold. 

Capt. Legg. 

Miss Lathwell. 

Mr. le Punch. 

Mr. Levi. 

Mr. Lherondell, jun. 

Mr. Lloyd. 

Sir Thomas Littleton. 

Mr. Luftan. 

Mr. Lydiard. 

Robert Mann, Esq. 

Counsellor Martin. 

Capt. Martin. 

Dr. Martin. 

Mr. Mason, jun. 

Mr. May. 

Sir John Molesworth. 

The Hon. Capt. William 

Dr. Starkey Myddleton. 

Mr. Munden. 

Mrs. Millward. 

Rev. Mr. Marshall. 

Montague Merrick, LL.D 

Major M'Donald. 

Mr. Nichols. 

Lady NorclifFe. 

Mr. Noy. 

Mr. Osgood. 

Capt. O'Hara. 

Ralph Palmer, Esq. 

Ralph Palmer, jun., Esq. 

Mr. Pennant. 

Robert Pearne, Esq. 

Sir Yelverton Peyton, Bart. 
George Rutland, Esq. 
Mr. Peagu. 
Mr. Cuthbert Pilman. 
Mr. Ravenel. 
Mr. Reid. 
Capt. Reid. 
Mr. Reynolds. 
Mrs. Roulson. 
Mr. Rutter. 
Capt. Ray. 
Major Scot. 

Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., late 
President of the Royal 
Mr. Suply. 
John Serecold, Esq. 
Mr. Sharpe. 
Mr. Smith. 
T. Smollett, M.D. 

Miss Storey. 

Mr. Selwyn. 

Earl of Sutherland. 

William Symons, Esq. 

Capt. Smyth. 

M. Seannenot. 

Hubert Tassel, Esq. 

Capt. Tublay. 

Miss Tublay. 

Mrs. Tench. 

Mrs. A. M. Umfreville. 

The Hon. Mrs. Verney. 

Capt. West. 

Dr. Wilmer. 

Mr. Samuel Wilson. 

Samuel Wilson, Esq. 

Sir Francis Wyndham. 

Mrs. Warner. 

Miss Wye. 

Mrs. Wiseham. 

Among the donors mentioned in this or previous catalogues occur the names of Sir 
Robert Cotton, Sir John Cope, Martin Folkes, Lady Norclifte, and the Earl of Sutherland. 

From I 729 to 1758 the museum and coffee-house were carried on by Salter's son-in- 
law, Christopher Hall. In 1759 the rate-books give the name of James Emblem, which 
continues until 1 78 I. In 1 782-1 783 occurs the name of James Jacob, and from 1790-1798 
that of Mary Jacob. In 1799 the house changed hands, the collection was sold by auction, 
and the coffee-house was converted into a public-house, where we are told a room was still 
kept for the friendly conferences of "men of literature and science." The house was 
closed, as we have already stated, in 1867 and converted into a private residence. 



Bibliographical references. 

Sir Richard Steele, The Tatler (No. 34), Tuesday, 28th June 1709. 

Weekly Journal, 22nd June 1723. 

Gentleman's Magazine, 7th January 1799. 

James Salter, Catalogue of Rarities. 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Randall Davies, Pall Mall Gazette, 4th September 1 906. 

Reginald Blunt, Handbook to Chelsea (1900). 

G. W. Niven, Selections from "The British Apollo" (1903). 

Chelsea Miscellany, Chelsea Public Library. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3276. *No5. 17 and 18 Cheyne Walk (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 



XXXII. —XL. — Nos. 19, 20, 20A, and 21 to 26 

Ground landlord, leaseholders, etc. 

Ground landlord. Earl Cadogan, Lord of the Manor. Leaseholders, 
No. 19, S. W. P. Willoughby, Esq. ; No. 20, W. Clifford Mellor, Esq. ; 
No. 20A, John Pedder, Esq. ; No. 21, Hon. Victoria Grosvenor ; No. 22, 
Geo. H. Dawkins, Esq. ; No. 23, A. W. Clarke, Esq. ; No. 24, Edward 
Clarence Wigan, Esq., M.B. ; No. 25, Mrs. Herbert Fisher ; No. 26, L. F. 
Harrison, Esq. 

General description and date of structure. 

We have grouped together the nine houses which stand west of Don 
Saltero's, for the purposes of our Survey, since they were built at one time, 
and occupy the exact frontage formerly filled by Henry VIIL's Manor House, 
on the site ofwhich they were built. They possess, moreover, a certain uniformity 
of character, and in treating them as a whole we shall be able to include what 
little there is to be said on the subject of the Manor House itself. 

We have described already the houses which were built upon the 
" Great Garden " (between the Manor House and Flood Street), which Sir 
Hans Sloane had let on lease in 17 17. The new Lord of the Manor did 
not come to live in Chelsea until 1742, but in that year he brought with him 
his great collection of natural treasures and objects of art which afterwards 
formed the nucleus of the British Museum. Faulkner gives some description 
of them with incidental allusions to the house, in recording the visit of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales to Sir Hans Sloane in 1748. It was the desire 
of Sir Hans Sloane that his collection should remain at Chelsea, and that the 
Government should purchase it with the Manor House, but this was not to 
be. The Collection was removed to Bloomsbury, and the Manor House was 
pulled down soon afterwards, in order that the site could be sold for building 
purposes. Nos. 19 to 26 CheyneWalk were then built between 1759 and 1765. 
The Manor House occupied by Sir Hans Sloane was the same building as 
that erected by Henry VIII. soon after his acquisition of the Manor from 
Lord Sandys, in 1536. Adjoining it on the west, a large addition had been 
built by James Duke of Hamilton, during his tenancy (i 639-1 649), but this 
had been bought in 1664 as a residence for the Bishops of Winchester, and 
was thereafter known as Winchester House. It was described in the Cadogan 
papers as " Hamilton House, a new-built brick house, purchased of Chas. 
Cheyne, Esq., for the sum of ;^4,250." The view of the north side of the Sandys, 

Manor House given by Faulkner in the second edition of his Chelsea is 
the only representation extant of the Tudor building. It is probably the one 



Henry mi. 


referred to by a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine of June 1822, where it is 
stated that Faulkner was about to publish a copy of a drawing of the Manor 
House from an old " roll." The engraving does not help us to form any very 
intelligible conception of the character of the original building. The drawing 
seems to have been made after the Duke of Hamilton's tenancy, since the 
portion on the right hand of the view approximates very nearly to the appear- 
ance of Winchester House, and more than one-third of the older part was 
apparently remodelled at the same time, namely about 1 640.* The alterations 
may have been even more extensive than this, for Sir Hans Sloane is said to 
have "thought that no part of the original building remained," an opinion in 
which, if he expressed it, we think he must have been mistaken. 

When the Manor House was seized by Parliament in 1653, and sold 
by Commissioners, it was thus described in the deed of sale: — " All the capital 
messuage or manor house, situate in the town of Chelsey, consisting of three 
cellars in the first floor, three halls, three parlours, three kitchens, two parlours, 
larders and nine other rooms, with a large staircase, in the first story ; three 
drawing rooms, seventeen chambers and four closets, with garrets over part of 
them, and summer roomes with a bedroome, and garden and orchard, on the 
north side of the said capital messuage, and courtyard on the south side thereof ; 
and one stable and one coachhouse, three little gardens and one parcel of 
ground, enclosed with a brick wall, formerly called the Great Orchard, now 
ploughed up." The house, here described, includes, of course, Winchester 
House, and the western boundary is defined as "a messuage in the occupation 
of T. Alston," that is Shrewsbury House, which adjoined the later gardens of 
the Bishops of Winchester. 

Winchester House was not pulled down until 1828. Several views of 
it exist and an interesting description is to be found in the Gentleman s Maga- 
zine, June 1822. Every vestige of it has, however, gone ; the site is occupied 
by modern houses and by Oakley Street, and, interesting though it is, it can 
hardly find a place in our present survey. The older part of the Manor House 
is on a different footing. Some fragments, insignificant perhaps, but none the 
less real, are incorporated in the houses on the site, the old brickwork of the 
garden walls has not altogether disappeared, and most interesting of all, the 
gardens themselves still seem to live, and though divided, have not lost the 
air of the palace pleasure grounds, planted many centuries ago. 

The position of the Manor House from east to west has been ascertained, 
but it is not so easy to define the distance of its frontage from the roadway, 
nor the measure of its projection northwards. Hamilton's Survey (as published 

* The little "bird's-eye" sketch of the Manor House on Faulkner's version of Hamilton's 
map, while inscribed as a view from Cheyne Walk, i.e., from the south side, is an exact repetition 
of this drawing reversed, and is manifestly inaccurate. The relative position of the courtyards is 
also in all probability not correct. Mr. Beaver mentions a water-colour drawing, the property 
of Dr. Phene of Chelsea, " which purports to be a view founded upon a drawing amongst the 
Manor records, of one of the fronts." He further says that it shows a building of Elizabethan 
character, which perhaps may mean that it represents the south elevation, altered possibly by the 



by Faulkner) is in no respect so inadequate as in its delineation of the Manor 
House, but we think it is probably right in showing the older portion consider- 
ably further back from the road than the wall of the Great Garden, and the 
newer part (Winchester House) as still further recessed to the north. The road- 
way along the water side was narrow and little used, the more common approach 
to the village (by land) being from Knightsbridge and down Church Lane. 
The Duke of Hamilton seems to have built his new house further north to 
allow an entrance courtyard on the south side, and according to the rough de- 
lineation of Winchester House on Horwood's Map of London (1794) its south 
wall would come near the break in the garden wall on the west of No. 26 
Cheyne Walk. This wall runs to the height of some 12 or 13 feet, and is for 
the most part of Tudor brickwork. It gives one the impression of having been 
part of the walls of the building, although there are no door or window open- 
ings, as indeed there would not be, since the two houses adjoined. Winchester 
House was built round a courtyard, as was the Manor House, but the latter 
came further south and possibly enclosed two courts, one north and one south. 
If this were so it is not unlikely that the frontage of the present houses is the 
same as that of the Manor House, and in support of this it has been pointed 
out that the lower courses of the front walls are actually of 2-inch Tudor bricks, 
which suggest the original foundations. Moreover, in the basement of No. 24 
are still to be seen remains of old vaults, apparently belonging to the original 
mansion, which would place the building quite as far as the southern wall of 
the present house. The great garden would then most probably have reached 
a point a little more southerly than the present garden railings. 

We will now describe the houses in turn, and comment on any special 
points which may connect them with the earlier buildings. 

No. 19 Cheyne Walk has been largely rebuilt, and has been carried 
up considerably higher than it was originally. It retains its old doorway, 
which is of good proportion and is similar to that illustrated on Plate 85. 
The doorways of all the houses appear to have been, at the first, from the same 
design and indeed the whole external treatment of the row seems to have 
aimed at strict uniformity. By way of contrast, the interiors exhibit marked 
differences both in plan and in decoration. This was not so in the earlier 
houses which we have described at the eastern end of Cheyne Walk, which 
show much individuality in the design of their elevations, but are more 
uniform in their internal detail. No. 19 retains the old dado panelling in the 
front room on the ground floor, and the staircase is probably in its original 
position between the front and back rooms. The whole of the rear part of 
the house is new. The front room on the first floor retains its old cornice 
and has since been beautifully panelled in the early i8th century style. 

No. 20 has not been altered much in recent years. Over the front 
doorway (another excellent example of the type mentioned above) a fine 
wisteria twines its many branches, the apparent age of which — were it not a 
plant of modern importation* — might seem to bear out the local tradition that 

* The wisteria was introduced from China into this country in 1817 or 181 8. 







makes it a survivor of the creepers that overran the walls of the Manor House. 
Several courses of 2-inch Tudor brickwork are clearly to be seen in the base 
of the front wall, and although it would be easy to assume that these were 
merely old materials used a second time in the foundations, yet they have 
scarcely the mark of the 1 8 th century bricklayer, and the balance of probability 
seems to be on the side of tradition. The front room on the ground floor 
has its old panelling and a late chimney-piece. There is a neat little arch 
between the entrance hall and the staircase, and above the doorways of the 
rooms are some well-carved entablatures. The best one of these is that shown 
on Plate 83, in the front room on the first floor. The frieze is boldly carved 
with flowing foliage, and in the centre, the enriched architrave is raised into 
a double scroll, upon which is a shield with the royal arms of Scotland, put 
here perhaps by Mr. John Hay, the first leaseholder. This room has a good 
cornice with dentil ornament, resembling very much the room on the first floor 
in No. 15. It is used as an oratory or private chapel. 

The rear part of the house has been extended, evidently many years ago, 
to form a large room, with canted ends, looking upon the garden. The brick- 
work of this portion seems to be of much the same date as the house itself, and 
it is probable that the alteration was made during the tenancy of John Hay, when 
the rate-books show that the assessment of the house was nearly doubled. The 
garden is very large, and possesses twice the length of the neighbouring gardens, 
taking in the ground to the rear of Nos. 1 9 and 20A. There is a very interesting 
lead cistern in the basement, of a triangular-shaped plan, with the largest face 
curved outwards and well moulded in three panels. The inscription is : — 





No. 20A has been altered considerably since it was built. Apparently 
it was at some time incorporated with No. 21 to form one house. It has lost 
its old entrance doorway, and the wall which divided the front gardens has been 
taken down. The staircase is original, and occupies the rear part of the hall op- 
posite the front door. The wall between the back room and the stair has been 
taken down, and in its place are three wood columns, which have the appearance 
of dating from the end of the 1 8 th century. The back room becomes in this way 
a lounge hall, and the graceful sweep of the stair is seen to advantage through the 
columns. The front room retains its old chimney-piece, and a modern studio has 
been built out at the back. On the first floor the two rooms have been thrown 
into one, two wooden columns having also been inserted here. The back part 
has its old fireplace, but the front room retains the cornice only. The house fol- 
lows in its arrangement the earlier plans noticed in Nos. 3 and 5 Cheyne Walk. 
The little wrought-iron balcony with cast-iron ends on the front elevation is a 
later addition. 

No. 21, which seems to have been used in conjunction with 2oa, has 
also been subject to much alteration. The first flight of the staircase is modern, 
the remainder, from the first floor upwards, is of an early and plain character. 
The two rooms on the ground floor are panelled from floor to ceiling and have 



a good cornice. In the place of the partition between are three arches supported 
by two panelled columns of different design, back and front. There are two 
old chimney-pieces with good dentil-cornice and carved architrave. Thedrawing- 
room on the first floor has a later cornice, but quite good fireplaces, the friezes 
being freely carved and the grates being surrounded with slips of Siena marble. 
A simple chimney-piece with well-designed mouldings is left in the front bed- 
room on the second floor ; and on the third floor there are two more of the 
same date, and panelling to a height of 7 feet. The fourth floor appears to have 
been added during the last century. 

This house has a very large share of the garden of the Manor House. 
It extends behind that of No. 20, and reaches the old Tudor boundary wall on 
the north. This is not a part of the "Great Garden" as shown by Hamilton, 
which lay to the east of No. 19 Cheyne Walk, but of the garden that lay 
directly to the north of the Manor House, and was not disposed of until after 
Sir Hans Sloane's death. This northern portion of the old manorial gardens 
(which was never separated from the Manor House as long as it stood) is 
divided chiefly between Nos. 21 and 26 Cheyne Walk, while the other gardens 
are laid out upon the site of the ancient buildings themselves. The part enjoyed 
by No. 21 is in width equal to the frontages of Nos. 19, 20, 2oa, 21 and 22, 
and is bounded on the east by the wall which separated Sir Hans Sloane's private 
gardens from the land which he had leased for building. The Tudor part of 
the northern wall occupies about half this width, measuring from the east. The 
garden has many fine old trees, and, with that of No. 26, forms one of the most 
striking survivals of the Chelsea of the past. 

No. 22 is a house that in spite of a good deal of alteration preserves in 
a very great degree the pleasant and homely atmosphere of the i8th century. 
The ironwork of the railings and that over the gate are simple and eff^ective, 
and the front doorway is another example of the beautifully proportioned 
entrances which we have referred to above. The staircase, though modern, is 
worth mentioning as it is reminiscent of the best work of the i8th century, 
with fine Corinthian caps to the newels, and twisted balusters, the wall having 
a panelled dado, finished with a half-handrail to match the stair.* The servants' 
staircase from the third floor is original. There are two old fireplaces, one on 
the second and one on the third floor, which have simple and well-proportioned 
cornices with dentil ornament. 

No. 23 seems to have lost its old doorway, but the present owner, Mr. A. 
W. Clarke, has placed a hood over the circular opening, supported by two carved 
brackets which he purchased from the remains of Paradise Row. It is pleasant 
to feel that they are preserved so near to their earlier home. The staircase 
has not been altered and the rooms on the ground floor have their panelling 
but are fitted with new fireplaces. The first floor is quite altered, but retains 
its old cornice ; on the second floor, the back bedroom has the original mantel- 
piece with simple cornice, shaped frieze and marble slips. The one in the front 
room is copied from this, the marble alone being of the date of the house. On 

* This stair is a copy of the one at Burford Priory, Oxon. 


Stanhope of She I ford. 




Stuart o/Doune. 

Monson of Castkmaine. 

the third floor is an old grate with iron fret, and the railings and lampstand 
outside the house are of the same date as the building. 

Beneath No. 24 is an archway leading to Cheyne Mews, some stables 
situated just at the back of the houses last described. This archway takes away 
nearly half the ground floor of the house, so that the front door (which is like 
that at No . 1 9) opens direct into a small room or entrance hall having an original 
chimney-piece, which communicates by an arch with the staircase, and with a 
similar room at the back. The first floor has two good sized rooms, looking 
over the road and garden respectively, and both extending over the archway. 
The characteristic dentil-cornice with enrichments is retained on this floor, and 
the back room has a panelled dado. An elaborate roofed balcony of cast iron is 
reached from the front room by French casements, — an addition of the last 
century. Two chimney-pieces without ornament and a dado moulding remain 
on the second floor. 

The real interest of the house, however, is in the basement, for here 
we have undoubted remains of the original vaults of the Manor House. There 
are, in all, seven chambers vaulted in brickwork, lying chiefly beneath the road- 
way to the mews. These vaults have been in part rebuilt, probably when the 
house was erected, but near the floor traces can be seen of the springing of the 
old vaults, and in the vault furthest south the old brickwork is left projecting 
from the floor. Although it is easy to distinguish from these remains the direc- 
tion of each particular vault, yet they represent so small a portion of the old 
house that they do not throw any light upon the buildings further than roughly 
to locate them. A quaint eff*ect is given to the rooms in the basement by these 
various vaulted compartments. There is a two-light casement window, some 
early i8th century panelling, and an apparently ancient lead cistern ; this is in 
such a position that it cannot be readily inspected. 

No. 25 is approached through a wrought-iron gate of modern design, 
fixed to the old railings. The doorway may serve as the type of those already 
described in Nos. 19, 20, 22, and 24, and is illustrated on Plate 85. In the 
hall is a wooden arch with key-block, supported on pilasters with caps, bases 
and moulded pedestals. In the front room — in a line with the arch — is another 
arch which suggests some modification of the original plan. The chimney-pieces 
in this and the back room illustrate very plainly the rapid decadence in design 
which was already moving toward the familiar early Victorian. There was still, 
however, an attempt at the use of mouldings, in which appears some vague 
scheme of proportion. The square opening of the fireplace is surrounded by a 
wide border of marble, and wood. First a slip of Sicilian marble with its beaded 
edge outwards, lines the opening ; then a band of Siena slightly recessed ; and 
outside all a small carved moulding of wood. Above this a plain slab of Sicilian 
marble provides the shelf. 

The staircase is quite plain and there is nothing of special interest up- 
stairs, but in the basement, on the garden side, is an old casement window with 
its lead lights, wrought-iron hinges and cockspur handle, evidently taken com- 
plete from the walls of the Manor House. 

No. 26, the last of the houses under consideration, has been completely 



altered, but its garden, to which we have already referred, is rich in historic sug- 
gestion. As one walks northwards by the side of the west wall of the garden, 
after passing about a third of its length, one comes to a sudden angle in the brick- 
work, which returns eastward some distance, and then continues north. The 
wall is 12 or 13 feet high, and at first appears to be not earlier than the 17th 
century, but after a few breaks and projections, it shows a fine stretch of Tudor 
brickwork, which continues as far as the north wall of the garden. The first 
part is evidently the boundary of the eastern portion of Winchester House, as 
corroborated by Horwood's map ; there are no indications of any doors or win- 
dow openings, but these would naturally be north and south, and any internal 
openings which may have originally connected it with the Manor House must 
have been long ago filled up. The walls have been obviously patched and trimmed 
to form the boundary of the garden, but the massiveness of the brickwork makes 
it clear that here, if anywhere, are the remains of part of the old Manor House. 
The western wall of the garden does not bond properly into the northern wall 
(which is also of Tudor brickwork for some distance), but joins it irregularly. 
It is difficult to say how far the Manor House went northwards, but it probably 
did not go very far beyond the stables of Cheyne Mews. North of this the 
trees are very old — there are two good mulberries, and a gigantic plane-tree 
stands just by the stable wall. This garden formed part of the four acres ac 
quired by the Rev. Thomas Clare, who in Faulkner's day seems to have impressed 
the inhabitants with his skill at "landscape" gardening. Mr. Clare's schemes 
probably did much to preserve the present gardens. Faulkner's description is 
distinctly amusing, for in these days of the revival of formal gardens we have 
lost sympathy with much that aroused the enthusiasm of people then. He says 
in one place : "Proceeding onwards we arrive at Queen Elizabeth's garden, in 
which still remains the celebrated mulberry tree planted by Her Majesty's own 
hands, but now hastening to decay. There the grounds, by judicious planting, 
and the happy disposition of light and shade, offer to the visitor a coup d'ceil of 
scenery, at once extensive and delightful, particularly a small ancient alcove, 
adjoining a Tudor arch, and an embattled turret, seen through the trees, con- 
vey an idea of monastic antiquity, the semblance of which is much heightened 
by the mouldering walls and the seclusion and silence of the surrounding um- 
brageous scenery : — • 

N'avez vous pas souvent, au lieux infrequentes 

Rencontr^ tout-a-coup, ces aspects enchantes, 

Qui suspendent vos pas, dont I'image cherie 

Vous jette en un douce et longue reverie ? — (De Lille)." 

Cary, Lord Hunsdon. 


and again : "From the taste displayed in designing the grounds, and the felicitous 
disposition of the landscape scenery, the visitor becomes so occupied in the con- 
templation of the varied beauties, that he forgets his locality, and finds his way 
out of this delicious labyrinth, with regret, with doubt, with difficulty." 
In the garden is an angle-cistern of lead with the inscription : — 

S O 











Condition of repair. 

The houses are all in good repair. 

Historical notes. 

The history of the new Manor House begins with the exchange of property made 
in 1536, by William Lord Sandys, Lord of the Manor of Chelsea, with Henry VIIL 
The presence of Sir Thomas More at what was afterwards called Beaufort House, had 
already familiarised the King with the beauty of the neighbourhood, and he soon formed 
the design of building himself a house here, on the banks of the Thames. Leland in his 
Itinerary notes that " the Lord Sannes that lately dyed made an exchange with the King, 
and gave Chelsey in Westminstre, for Mottisfont Priory in Hamptonshire." At that 
time the old Manor House, later to become the home of the Lawrence family, was situated 
further west, where Lawrence Street is now, but Henry chose a site nearer the water, 
with a frontage on Cheyne Walk, as we have seen, and there he built the new Manor 
House, soon after the attainder and execution of More. Eight days before the date of the 
conveyance of the manor we learn, on the authority of Wriothesley, that Henry VIIL 
married Jane Seymour secretly at Chelsea. In the 28th year of Henry's reign. Sir Francis 
Bryan was made " keeper of the chief messuage of the Manor of Chelsey," and later he was 
confirmed in the office for life, by patent 31 Henry VIIL 

In 1543, on the marriage of Henry with Catherine Parr, the manor was assigned to 
the Queen as part of her jointure. She lived here after the King's death, with her 
fourth husband, Sir Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral, and in her care was the 
Princess Elizabeth, who had lived here before Catherine Parr's marriage with the King. 
Mr. L'Estrange, in The Village of Palaces, gives a lively account of the Queen's inter- 
course with Seymour, and of the latter's indiscreet behaviour towards Elizabeth, from the 
letters preserved among the Burleigh Papers. Catherine died in 1548, whereupon it 
seems that the manor was bestowed by Edward VI. on John Dudley, first Duke of 
Northumberland, as in the year 1551 that nobleman surrendered it to the Crown ; and 
the King, soon after, in the fifth year of his reign, in consideration of the surrender of the 
manor and park of Esher, granted it to John Earl of Warwick, the duke's son. Two 
years afterwards (1553) it was again granted to the Duke of Northumberland, and the 
Lady Jane, his duchess, in exchange for the manor and castle of Tunbridge and other 
lands. But, in the same year, the duke was executed in consequence of his attempt to 
place upon the throne Lady Jane Grey, who had herself stayed at Chelsea with Catherine 
and Seymour. The Duchess of Northumberland resided here until the year of her 
death, 22 January 1555—6, when she was buried in the church, where there is a monu- 
ment to her memory in the More Chapel. She was the daughter of Sir Edward Guildford. 
In her interesting will she bequeaths to Sir Henry Sidney "the gold and green hangings 
in the gallery in the Manor House water-side at Chelsey, with her lords arms and her 
own." Against her express wish, her funeral was attended with great pomp and ceremony.* 
Anne of Cleves, who after her divorce from Henry VIIL had remained In England, appears 
to have resided in the Manor House after this, for she died " at the King and Quene's 
Majesty's place at Chelsey beside London " "]■ on 16 July i 5 5 6, and was buried in Westminster 

In 1559, Queen Elizabeth leased the manor to Ann, Duchess of Somerset, widow 
of the late Protector, Seymour, Duke of Somerset, for her life. The duchess afterwards 
married her first husband's steward, Francis Newdigate, and died in 1587. She was the 
daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope of Sudbury, and descended on her mother's side from 
Thomas of Woodstock, youngest son of Edward III. After her death Elizabeth made a 
similar grant of the manor to John Stanhope, Esq., afterwards Lord Stanhope of Harring- 
ton. In 1589 we find his marriage at Chelsea recorded in the Register, and also the 

* See Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials. 
f MS. at the College of Arms, I. XV. fo. 232. 



baptism of his daughter Elizabeth (1593) and his son Charles (1595). Stanhope seems, 
however, to have given up the manor before this, for it was granted, in 1591, by the 
Queen, to Catherine, first wife of Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, Lord High 
Admiral, on the same terms as the previous grants. During Nottingham's residence 
here the Queen would often visit the Manor House, the home of her own childhood, and 
there are several records of her coming to dine with the Lord Admiral. These visits 
seem to have taken place as early as 158 1 and 1585 when he was still Lord Howard, and 
letters from him at Chelsea dated 1589 and 1591 are among the Harleian manuscripts. 
It would appear, therefore, that he was a tenant here some time before the grant of the 
manor to his wife, first under the Duchess of Somerset and later under Stanhope. The 
first Countess of Nottingham was Catherine, daughter of Henry Cary, Lord Hunsdon. 
She died 25 th February 1603 and was buried at Chelsey on 21st March, three days 
before the death of the Queen. This was the Lady Nottingham who is said to have 
kept the ring that Elizabeth had given to the Earl of Essex, and the non-appearance of 
which cost him his life. 

The Earl of Nottingham married, as his second wife. Lady Margaret Stewart (or Stuart), 
daughter of James Earl of Moray. Her mother was Elizabeth, daughter of James Earl of 
Moray, natural son of James V. of Scotland. James L granted the manor to the second 
Countess of Nottingham for life. The Earl died in 1624, and was buried at Reigate ; his 
Countess subsequently married William, Lord Monson, Viscount Castlemaine. She died August, 1639, ''"'i ^'^^ buried in Chelsea Church. Before her death, however, she 
and her husband parted with their interest in the manor to Sir John Monson and Robert 
Goodwin, Esq., and in the year 1638 these persons sold it to Francis Vernon in trust for 
James, Marquis and afterwards Duke of Hamilton, who in the following year obtained a 
grant from the King of the manor in fee. Upon obtaining possession, he seems to have 
begun the enlargement of the house which we have noticed above. His additions must 
have nearly doubled the frontage to the river, and the new apartments were designed on 
a large scale. In the Civil War he warmly espoused the cause of Charles I., and having 
been taken prisoner at the battle of Preston, he was beheaded March 9th, 1649. His 
brother William, who succeeded to the title, was killed at the battle of Worcester, 165 i. 
The manor and Manor House having been seized among the forfeited lands by Parliament 
in 1653, the house and premises adjoining were sold by Commissioners and Trustees 
appointed for that purpose to John Walker and others, and, having changed hands more 
than once, were finally conveyed by the heirs of the Duke of Hamilton to Charles 
Cheyne, Esq., in 1657, and the whole manor became his property in 1660. Charles 
Cheyne was created Viscount Newhaven and Lord Cheyne in 1681. He married, first. 
Lady Jane, eldest daughter and co-heir of William Duke of Newcastle, and it was with 
the wealth which his wife brought him that he purchased the Chelsea property. We have 
already mentioned the sale of the western part of the Manor House by him to the Bishops 
of Winchester in 1664. Lord Cheyne lived in the eastern or old building. After the 
death of his first wife, who was much beloved in Chelsea, and whose tomb is to be seen 
in the parish church. Lord Cheyne married Laetitia, the widowed Countess of Radnor, 
who outlived him, and after his death resided at Radnor House, in Paradise Row. In 1698 
Lord Cheyne died and was succeeded by his son William, Lord Cheyne, who, however, 
does not seem to have resided here for long. The rate-lists inform us that the Manor House 
was occupied for three years by the Countess of Plymouth (i 701-3), and she was followed 
by Mr. Anthony Chauvin, who stayed till i 709, when he moved to a large house in 
Paradise Row, a little east of the Countess of Radnor's. The name of the Bishop of 
Gloucester occurs for 1710, and then the Manor House remained empty until 1712 and 
in that year, the manor was purchased by Sir Hans Sloane. We have only space here 
to refer in the briefest manner to this distinguished man. His coming was a momentous 
event for Chelsea, for, as we have already seen, it meant much drastic change, the beginning 
of the end. The rate-books show that the Manor House was let to Madame Deborah 
Woodcock from 1713 to 1728, and to Madame Edwards from 1729 to 1741. Mrs. 
Woodcock seems to have moved here from Shrewsbury House {j.v.) where she had kept a 
school. There is little doubt that she moved this to the Manor House, and that it was 



continued by Mrs. Edwards. In 1742 Sir Hans Sloane had the house prepared for him- 
self, and came to spend the evening of his days in Chelsea. He was already over 80 
years of age, and found his chief pleasure in arranging the vast collection of objects of 
natural history and works of art that he had accumulated and in showing them to the 
royal and distinguished visitors who came to see him. He died in 1753, and his monu- 
ment is in the disused burial-ground of the Old Church. The daughter and co-heir of 
Sir Hans Sloane married an ancestor of Earl Cadogan, the present lord of the manor. 

We have already stated that, contrary to his wish, Sloane's great collection did not 
remain at Chelsea, but was taken to Bloomsbury to form the nucleus of the British Museum. 
It now remains only to record the tenants of the houses that were erected upon the Manor 
House site : — 

No. 19 Cheyne Walk. — i 760-1763, Catherine Wiseman ; 1764-1780, Charles Bain- 
bridge; i78i,WilliamHunt; 1782-1783, Mary Cobb ; i 790-1792, W. Gibson ; 
1793, James Bolton ; 1794, Thomas Fielding ; 1 795-1 797, Henry Hill Hervey. 

No. 20. — 1 760-1 767, John Hay ; 1768, Viscount Clare ; 1 775-1 783, Anne Lane ; 
1 790-1 797, Thomas Rowntree. 

No. 20A. — 1760-1761, Rev. Richard Brooks ; 1762-1767, James Metcalf ; 1768- 
1776, Catherine Metcalf; 1777, Mrs. Day; 1778-1783, William Cooke; 
1 790-1 797, Robert Whitworth. 

No. 21. — 1760-1763, Gidley Burgess; 1 764-1 772, John Smith; 1773, Peter 
Ducane ; 1775-1783, George Medley ; 1 790-1 793, William Hale ; 1794-1800, 
William, Henry and Mary Shiffner. 

No. 22. — 1 761-1778, Sarah Burnaby ; 1 779-1 798, Thomas Paulin ; 1 798-1 802, 
Elizabeth Paulin. 

No. 23. — 1761, Joseph Manger ; 1762, William Hill ; 1763-1770, Mary Bridges ; 
1771-1772, Dorothy Davies; 1774, CharlesMoore ; 1776, Walter Cutt ; 1777- 
1781, Thomas Collett ; 1782-1795, Richard Ladbroke ; 1796-1800, Ann 

No. 24. — I 765-1 769, Griffith Phillips; 1 770-1772, Sir William Merideth, Bart.; 
1773, John Greenwell ; 1774— 178 1, Lucretia Horsmandon ; 1 782-1 793, 
Thomas and Charles Harris ; 1 794-1 802, Amelia Corderoy or Cowdry. 

No. 25. — 1765, Henry Willis; 1766-1771, Thomas Northmore ; 1772-1783, 
Elizabeth Kirby ; 1 790-1 802, Catherine Raper. 

No. 26. — 1765-1769, Sir Joseph Hankey ; 1780, Lady Han key ; 1781-1785, 
George Medley; 1786— 1791, Susannah Nicholas and Sarah Coggs ; 1792 
Robert Cramp; 1 793-1 802, William Rowlatt. 

Bibliographical references. 

John Bowack, Antiquities of Middlesex, &=c. (1705). 

Rev. Daniel Lysons, Environs of London (1795). 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and its Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Reginald Blunt, Historical Handbook to Chelsea (1900). 

Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church (1904). 

Note. — In the above works will be found references to all the original sources which have 
been consulted. 



In the committee's ms. collection are — 

Houses on site of Manor House (photograph). 
i^JJ. No. 20 Cheyne Walk, Front doorway (photograph). 

3278. *No. 20 Cheyne Walk, Carved overdoor (photograph). 

3279. *No. 20 Cheyne Walk, Lead cistern (photograph). 

3280. *No. 20A Cheyne Walk, Staircase (photograph). 

3281. *No. 25 Cheyne Walk, Front doorway (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 



HOUSE, and Nos. 43-45 CHEYNE WALK. 

Ground landlord. 

The Artisans', Labourers' and General Dwellings Co., Ltd. The build- 
ings are let to various tenants. 

General description and date of structure. 

The visitor to Chelsea will find no one to direct him if he asks for 
Shrewsbury House, the very memory of the old mansion of the Earls of Shrews- 
bury seems to have departed, and even those who are versed in the local history 
have disagreed regarding its exact site. In spite of this, however, we think there 
is sufficient evidence to prove not only that its position can be identified, but 
that some actual remains of the original house are still to be seen. 

Anticipating a little our description of Nos. 46-48 Cheyne Walk, which 
stand just east of Cheyne Row, we find that in a lease of this property in 1 7 n, 

it is described as adjoining Shrewsbury House 
upon the east. In fact the eastern wall of No. 
46 does still adjoin a group of buildings that 
possess clear proof of having been on their pre- 
sent site long before the destruction of Shrews- 
bury House in 181 3, as chronicled by Faulkner. 
These buildings may fairly claim, therefore, to be 
either part of the original house, or to have been 
incorporated with it at some early period. They 
consist at present of three distinct portions, the 
western part being of two stories, and having 
a gable both north and south. There is reason to 
suppose, as we shall see, that this was actually a 
part of the original house. It has been modern- 
ised in front, but at the back it has still some 
casement windows of the same appearance as 
those in the early views of Shrewsbury House. 
The eastern part consists of a house built in the 
first half of the 1 8th century, and recessed some 
distance from the road. This may occupy the site of a part of the old building 
and incorporates, possibly, some of the old walls. In early maps of the 19th 
century it seems that there was a row of houses in a line with this, stretching 
from the gable of No. 45 to "The Magpie and Stump" (No. 37, formerly 
"The Pye," which was an old freehold, having right of common), but they 
have since been pulled down. The third portion consists of two or three shops 
which have been built in front of the house, probably in the 19th century. 
We will return to these buildings later on. 






The boundary wall between the garden of No. 46 and the land at the 
pear of the old buildings is a fine specimen of undoubted Tudor brickwork. 
This wall runs northward a considerable distance, and is to be traced at the back 
of the gardens in Cheyne Row, where it called forth some comments from Car- 
lyle, who refers to its age and durability in ShootingNiagara and after * Parallel 
with this wall at a distance of something over 100 feet to the east is another fine 
Tudor wall of the same long and narrow red bricks, bonded in the old English 
manner {see illustration). This latter wall was probably the limit of the Shrews- 
bury property where it adjoined that of Winchester House"]" {see p. (^G). If 
this were so, the Earls of Shrewsbury seem to have possessed a slip of land 
about 40 yards in width, having a frontage on Cheyne Walk and extending 
at least as far back as Little Cheyne Row where the stables were situated. 
Faulkner tells us that the road called Cook's Grounds (now Glebe Place) was 
formerly a back way to the stable yard of Shrewsbury House, and he adds 
that " the stone framework of the gate is still visible in a garden in Upper 
Cheyne Row." But Dr. King shows this as glebe land in 1700, in his MS. 
notes and plans. It is possible that the Shrewsbury property included part 
of Dr. Phene's gardens on the north of Little Cheyne Row, and that the 
entrance to the latter from Glebe Place and the old cottage which stands 
beside it are on the site of a gateway that led to Shrewsbury House. We 
must bear in mind that it was not until 1719 that the King's (private) Road 
was made public, although it had been used by residents as a " back " way 
since the days of Charles II. Shrewsbury House, however, dates from before 
the year 1543, as will be noticed later, so that it is not improbable that there 
was another entrance from the direction of Cheyne Row, if the stables were 
in this position. 

Regarding the character of the original building we have the interesting 
testimony of a wash-drawing of the courtyard in the extra illustrated edition of 
Lyson's Environs at the Guildhall Library (Plate 86), and of the engraving 
illustrated on Plate 87.;}; These drawings show a large Tudor or Elizabethan 
house of very picturesque appearance, but they give us no definite clue to its 
position in relation to Cheyne Walk and the adjacent property. In the engrav- 
ing, however, on the left-hand {i.e.^ the west) side are shown some buildings, 
apparently of the i8th century, which bear a marked resemblance to part of 
the existing block, already mentioned. We have already referred to this house, 
which is now divided into Nos. 43 and 44, and still contains the relics of a fine 
stairway, some good panelling, and a carved chimney-piece on the second floor. 
Adjoining the east wall of No. 43 was an archway which led into the courtyard 
of Shrewsbury House, and although we have no direct evidence, it seems pretty 
certain that the mansion stood near enough to the roadside for the wings to 

* Macmillan's Magazine, August 1867. 

f Mr. Randall Davies, in his book on the Old Church, supposes Faulkner to be wrong in saying 
that Shrewsbury House adjoined the Bishops of Winchester's property, because the freehold of the 
"Magpie and Stump" intervened. It seems, however, that the last named, although it had a frontage 
on Cheyne Walk, had no great depth, and that the Winchester property extended behind it to 
Shrewsbury House. This is borne out by the description of the manor quoted on p. 66. 

if Faulkner publishes a poor copy of this engraving in his Chelsea. 

g 11 


reach Cheyne Walk itself. If this were so the gable of No. 45 (which is much 
of the same relative height as the gables in the old views) may well mark the 
original front of the west wing. Moreover, although Faulkner says that Shrews- 
bury House occupied in his day three sides of a quadrangle, yet there are many 
reasons for supposing that there was originally a fourth side which would have 
fronted the street, and from which the wings may have projected forward to 
form gables. Both the Manor House and Winchester House were built in 
quadrangular form ; the south side being the most important with its river 
prospect was not likely to have been omitted here. The return for the hearth 
tax* in 1662 gives some indication of the size of Shrewsbury House which 
had 50 hearths as against 58 at Beaufort House, and only 31 at the manor. 
The curious persistence, too, of archways long after the original building has 
disappeared, which can be observed in every part of London, makes it pro- 
bable that the archway, in existence here until the houses were destroyed in 
the last century, marked the original entrance to the courtyard of Shrews- 
bury House. Faulkner describes the building thus : " Shewsbury or Alston 
House, a capital mansion built about the latter end of the reign of 
Henry VIII., was situate in Cheyne Walk, adjoining the gardens of Winchester 
Palace. ... It was an irregular brick building forming three sides of a 
quadrangle. The principal room was 120 feet in length, and was originally 
wainscotted with carved oak. One of the rooms was painted in imitation of 
marble, and appeared to have been originally an oratory. Certain curious 
portraits on panel which had ornamented the large rooms were destroyed 
some few years since." He then goes on to describe the underground passage 
which was discovered to lead northwards from the house. On a later page, 
in his second edition (1829), he records the fact that the building "has been 
pulled down entirely." "In 18 13," he continues, " the materials were sold 
piecemeal by a speculating builder, who had obtained possession, and now 
not a stone remains to show where it once stood — Seges ubi Troja fuit." The 
zealous author was clearly leading up to a cherished Latin quotation, for he 
seems somewhat to overstate the fact. The building was not of stone but of 
brick, and we have already shown that some portions are probably still in 
existence. But Faulkner's remarks no doubt refer to that range of buildings 
which lay to the north, and which is shown in the old views. This, almost 
certainly, contained the long gallery on the first floor, as it would measure in 
total length (between the old garden walls) about 120 feet. We have already 
said, however, that the original plan was most probably a complete quadrangle, 
and the most striking evidence of this has been the discovery on the ground 
floor of the later buildings, two sides of a room apparently in situ, with 
panelling and two doorways of the 17th century. The position of the room, 
which measures about 18 feet 6 inches by 13 feet 6 inches, is immediately 
within the open quadrangle mentioned by Faulkner, and adjoins the east 
wall of the west wing (No. 45). If it is in its original position, therefore, it 
would form part of the southern range, in which was the entrance archway. 

* Extra illustrated edition of Faulkner's Chelsea, Chelsea Public Library. 



The panelling may not date back to before Sir Joseph Alston's tenancy, but 
may be part of alterations which he made c. 1650. A measured drawing of 
it is given on Plate 90, not only from its topographical interest, but because it 
belongs to a period of design which is transitional between the Jacobean work 
and that of the " later Renaissance." 

Beyond the few facts and suggestions here set forth it is impossible to 
go, unless someone should chance to find an early plan of the house or the 
estate. The local maps do not help us. Faulkner's version of Hamilton's 
map is merely misleading, and Richardson's survey of the manor (1769) 
omits the property as being a freehold. The position of the house and 
gardens is, we think, determined in spite of the fragmentary character of the 
information, but it would be very interesting to know more of this home of 
the powerful Earls of Shrewsbury and of the ancestors of the Dukes of 

Condition of repair. 

The whole block of buildings is in a very poor condition. In most parts the brick- 
work is sound ; but the woodwork, unless cared for, will soon perish : the 1 7th century 
panelling is falling to pieces. 

Historical notes. 

Mr. Randall Davies has pointed out that Faulkner is not strictly accurate in placing 
the date of Shrewsbury House " about the latter end of the reign of Henry VIII." as 
there is a record* of the residence of George, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, at Chelsea as early 
as I 5 19. He was a Privy Councillor to Henry VIII. and accompanied the King when 
he met Francis I. at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. His son Richard was born at 
Chelsea. Francis, the fifth Earl, is included in a court roll of the freehold tenants of the 
manor dated 1543, at the Record Office, and in the diary of Henry Machyn it is 
recorded of him, under date 1 55 1 : — "The v. day of June came to Chelsea the Earl 
of Shrewsbury with seven score horse, and after him forty velvet coats and chains, and 
in his own livery, to his place, and the residue of his servants." George, sixth Earl 
of Shrewsbury, succeeded to the title in 1560. The story of his custody of Mary Queen 
of Scots and the trouble he had with his wife, "Bess of Hardwick," whose fourth husband 
he was, is well known. When Queen Elizabeth relieved him from his charge she called 
forth his thanks for thus ridding him of " two she-devils." There are several letters extant 
which refer to his quarrel with his wife, mentioning Chelsea incidentally. In the 
Hatfield papers is a letter from the Earl to his Countess in which he says, " You still 
pressed her Majesty further that you might come to my house at Chelsey, which I granted, 
and at your coming I told you that you were welcome upon the Queen's commandment ; 
but that though you were cleared in Her Majesty's sight of all offences yet I had not 
cleared you, nor could trust you till you did confess that you had offended me." 

The Earl of Shrewsbury died in 1590. Mr. Beaverf tells us that "The house at 
Chelsea appears to have been bequeathed by him to his widow, Bess of Hardwick, who 
survived him seventeen years, and bequeathed all her estates to her son William by her 
second husband. Sir William Cavendish. This son was created Baron Cavendish and 
afterwards Earl of Devonshire by James I. He died at Hardwick in 1626. His widow 
appears to have constantly resided at Chelsea ; the burials of several of her servants 
are recorded in the register, and among the Duke of Devonshire's MSS. are several 

* Brewer's State Papers, Vol. III. 
f Memorials of Old Chelsea. 

Talbot, Earl of 




Household Books for Chelsea." This .was the Earl's second wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Edward Boughton, and widow of Sir Richard Wortley. She died in 1643, and, 
according to Dr. King's MSS., the house was purchased soon after by Sir Joseph Alston, 
created a baronet by Charles II. in 1682. He was the son of Edward Alston of 
Edwardston, Suffolk. His wife Mary, daughter and co-heiress of Mr. Crooicenburg, a 
Dutch merchant, brought her husband a portion of ^^i 2,000.* She died in 1761 and 
was buried at Chelsea. The funeral sermon delivered on this occasion, together with 
that delivered upon Lady Jane Cheyne, is in a folio volume of sermons by Adam Little- 
ton, D.D., Rector of Chelsea (1680), lately acquired by the Chelsea Public Library. 
"Sir Joseph Alston Knight" [Baronet] was buried at Chelsea on 31st May 1688, and 
entries relating to the family continue to appear in the Register until 1693— 1694. 

About this time the property changed hands, for we find from the rate-books that Mr. 
Robert Woodcock lived here, 1695— 1709, and that his wife stayed here until 1714, when 
she moved into the Manor House. The Woodcocks were, however, only tenants, and from 
■"'"""• a. note by the rector. Dr. King, it appears that they carried on a school, which was evidently 

transferred to the Manor House. The owner of the house was Robert Butler, whose will 
(i 71 l) we have already noticed on p. 27. He mentions specifically " the house and gardens 
. . . wherein Mr. Woodcock now dwells, and the coachhouse, stables . . . rented of me 
by Mr. Bates, lately deceased, and the rooms rented of me by Captain Jenkins, being part 
of the said house of Mr. Woodcock's." 

On Richardson's "Survey of the Manor" (1769) the property is marked "Mrs. State, 
late Dr. Butler." It is probable that the first name should be Tate, since Faulkner tells 
us that the house " came into the possession of Mr. Tate, and was occupied as a stained 
paper manufactory." Dr. Butler was the son of Robert Butler. 

It is possible, by means of the rate-books, to give a list of the tenants during the i8th 
century, and although the names represent, in its later days, merely the occupants who 
were using the mansion for commercial purposes, yet their publication may not be without 
value, and might, perhaps, lead to the discovery of further information regarding the old 
building itself. 

After Mrs. Woodcock's departure in 17 14, there is the entry "Madame Butler's old 
house — empty," till 171 5, and then follow : — 

1 717-1720. Mrs. Shortgrove. 

1721-1726. Mary Pybuss. 

1727— 1728. William Ferryman. 

1729-1734. Anne Wilson. 

1735-1740. Anne Walthall. 

1 741-1750. Abigail Pennyman. 

1 751-1756. John McDonnell (or McDonald). 

1 7 57-1 766. Robert Turlington. 

1 767-1 769. Martha Wray. 

1770. John Harrowbain. 

1771-1773. John Prince. 

1 774-1 776. Jonathan Stonnard. 

1777. John Skinner. 

1 778-1 779. James Spencer. 

1 780-1 78 1. Messrs. Mitchell and Whitchurch. 

1782-1783. William Whitchurch & Co. 

1790-1796. Bowers & Co. 

1 797-1 800. William Harwood (manufactory). 

The house was destroyed, as already stated, in 181 3. 

* Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church. 


Bibliographical references. 

Rutland and Hatfield MSS. re Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Rev. Daniel Lysons, Environs of London (1795). 

Thomas Faulkner, Chelsea and Environs (2nd edition, 1829). 

Rev. A. G. L'Estrange, The Village of Palaces (1880). 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Chelsea (1892). 

Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church (1904). 

Chelsea Miscellany, Chelsea Public Library. 

Old prints and drawings. 

*Wash drawing, Guildhall copy of Lysons' Environs. 
* Engraving, Chelsea Miscellany. 
Engraving, Faulkner's Chelsea. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3282. *View from Cheyne Walk, also showing Nos. 46 and 48 (photograph). 

3283. Another view of the same (photograph). 

3284. *Vicw from back, also showing Nos. 46 and 48 (photograph). 

3285. *Panelled room, west side (measured drawing). 

3286. *Panelled room, east side (measured drawing). 

3287. Tudor brickwork in garden wall (photograph). 

3288. *Detail of same (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 



Ground landlord, leaseholders, etc. 

No. 46 is owned and occupied by L. A. Harrison, Esq., and No. 48 by 
W. J. Disturnal, Esq., B.A., LL^B. 

General description and date of structure. 

Originally three separate houses, these buildings now contain the two 
residences Nos. 46 and48,the former including the original Nos. 46 and 47. The 
property on which they stand adjoined that of Shrewsbury House on the east, 
and the fine Tudor wall which forms the boundary has already been mentioned. 
We quote the following from Mr. Randall Davies* : "The western boundary 
of Shrewsbury House was 66 feet east of the house at the corner of Cheyne Row, 
formerly called 'The Feathers' or 'The Prince's Arms' ; the intervening space 
being originally occupied by another tavern called 'The Three Tuns,' belonging 
to the manor, which was pulled down some time before 1711 (Middx. Registry 
1 7 II, March 26, Clarkson to Turton)." No. 49 Cheyne Walk, which has been 
rebuilt, is on the site of "The Feathers," and Nos. 46 and 48 occupy the frontage 
of 66 feet mentioned by Mr. Davies as the site of " The Three Tuns," the 
bowling green of which had been built upon a few years previously to form 
Cheyne Row. The houses may have been built soon after the date of the lease 
(171 1), but they have been somewhat altered, and No. 48 was evidently re- 
modelled about a century and a half ago. Externally they preserve their early 
Georgian character, without possessing any striking features, and No. 48 is 
cemented over the brickwork. 

No. 46 has a nice little iron grille in the fanlight over the front door, 
and an original archway in the hall with beautifully carved Ionic capitals. The 
western portion has been made into one large room on the ground floor, and 
has been panelled in keeping with the early 1 8 th century fashion. Above there 
are two good chimney-pieces, one understood to have come from No. 21 
Cheyne Walk, and the other a copy of this. On the second floor there is an old 
chimney-piece with dentil-cornice in the front room, and at the back is an old 
hob grate. Several portions of the old cornice mouldings to the rooms are left. 

No. 48 is an interesting house, in that it shows something of internal 
architectural efi^ect, dating from a period when decorative work was in decline. 
The front room on the ground floor is curved in plan at its north end. This 
was done to give sufficient space on one side for the stairs, the other side being 
occupied by a little cupboard. In the recess is an arch which was inserted later 
as it cuts into the cornice. The back room has been papered over the panelling, 
but preserves its wood cornice. On the first floor the back room and "powder 
room " are covered with plain panelling, and there is a small original chimney- 
piece. On the second floor is an early grate of reeded pattern, 

* Chelsea Old Church, by Randall Davies. 


Although there is little left to show conclusively that the houses date 
from 1 7 1 1 , yet that is probable. There seems to have been some rearrangement 
in addition to the merely decorative alterations. The houses retain their three 
"powder room" projections on the garden side, the tv/o towards the west 
having kept the original wood cornice at the eaves, and old hipped roofs. 

Condition of repair. 

The houses seem in good repair. 

Historical notes. 

Although it is easy to identify " The Feathers" Inn in the rate-lists, and there is 
no difficulty in tracing the residents in Shrewsbury House, yet it is not altogether plain 
which entries refer to the three houses, Nos. 4.6, 47 and 48 Cheyne Walk. This 
is perhaps due to the fact that houses were built in the front of Shrewsbury House at various 
times, and their occupants may not have all been entered in the same order. The names 
may be, however, of interest, and with the above reservation we will put them down in 
the order which seems most probable. 

In the position in which we should expect to find No. 46 is the entry "a new house" 
for 1766-1768. The residents after this date are : 1769-1783, Charles Pinfold ; 1790-1798, 
Abel Vyvyan ; 1799, Sarah Vyvyan ; and 1800— 1802, Richard Wilkinson. 

The chief tenants of No. 47 appear to have been: 171 3-1 7 18, Madame Bendall ; 
1718-1722, Miles Arnold ; 1 723-1 728, Forde Rodgers ; i 729-173 i. Lady Northcliffe ; 
1 736-1 760, Mary Errick ; i 761 -1768, Hon. Mrs. Verney ; 1 768-1 77 5, Susan Nicholas ; 
1778-1779, Arabella Warrington ; 1778-1779, Elizabeth Ward ; I 781-1 783, Hannah 
Wills ; 1 790-1 794, Stephen Artaud ; 1 799-1 802, Joseph Munday. 

In No. 48 were: 1714— 1723, William Bockett, followed in 1724 by John Tey ; 
from 1730— 1734 Mrs. Rose Tey lived here, and her name appears again after a short 
tenancy by Thomas Tey (1735— 1740). She stayed here until 1766, but the assessment 
of the house falls from ^^26 to ^^15. The house was empty in 1766, occupied by John 
Philips in 1 767, and empty again until i 769, when the assessed rateable value rises to ^^28 
with the tenancy of John Hall, who stayed till 1776. Then follow 1 777-1 781, Anne 
Calloway; 1782-1783, Dorothy Sydenham ; i 790-1 796, John Morrison ; 1798, George 
Fielder; 1799, William Brook ; 1 800-1 802, William Coleman. 

Bibliographical references. 

Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church (1904). 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

Views of front (partly) and back, with those of Shrewsbury House {vide ante 
Nos. 3282-3284). 






Ground landlord, leaseholders, etc. 

The houses belong to the Cheyne Hospital for Sick and Incurable 
Children. The nurses of the hospital use No. 62 ; No. 6^ is tenanted by 
Alfred Carpmael, Esq. 

General description and date of structure. 

Nos. 62 and 63 Cheyne Walk are the only remaining houses of a terrace 
of five which were at first called Church Row and afterwards Prospect Place. 
They immediately adjoin the churchyard, and figure in a great many old views 
of the church and of Cheyne Walk. The land on which they are built was part 
of the property sold to Thomas Lawrence in 1583 when he purchased the old 
Manor House, and overlooks the chapel which was part of the private property 
of the Lawrence family. It is probable that the row was built soon after 1686 
when the then owner, Sir Thomas Lawrence, returned from Maryland, where 
he was Secretary to the Colony, as Mr. Randall Davies notes a lease of the 
end house (eastwards) to Edward Hatfield in 1689. The two houses that re- 
main are therefore the oldest houses, still existing, which we have treated so 
far in this survey. 

Having said that they do exist, we have said almost as much as we can 
of the original houses, for in the intervening period between their erection and 
the present time many alterations have been made. The last alteration, how- 
ever (1908), has been very skilfully done, and their exterior, at least, preserves 
for us very much the appearance which is seen in old engravings. The chief 
change has been made in demolishing the ground floor of No. 6^ to make an 
archway to the rear of the houses, but the front walls have not been otherwise 
disturbed. The plastered fronts, the early Victorian balcony of No. 62, and the 
graceful little doorway of No. 62 are still as they were, and the windows retain 
their old proportions, the dormer windows only having been rebuilt. 

It is evident that the houses were decorated and somewhat remodelled 
about a century ago, and this is still more plain in the interior. The front 
room and hall on the ground floor of No. 62 have just been thrown into one. 
The room is panelled throughout ; there is an old grate with a new chimney- 
piece, and in the panelling is a large square opening that led into the back 
room through folding doors. The architrave to this dates from about 1800 ; 
the doors, with their glass fronts and curved glazing bars, are fitted in the 
room above on the first floor, and open on to the adjoining hospital. The 
back room has a new chimney-piece, but it retains the fine cast grate, of which 
an illustration is given in Plate 94. The stair was put in about the year 1 800, 



and on the first floor both rooms have good plain panelling and excellent grates. 
The second floor has two good grates and a panelled dado. 

The interior of No. 63, which was the home of Francis Atterbury, Bishop 
of Rochester, has been quite altered and the back portions of both this and 
the neighbouring house have been rebuilt. The Hospital has, however, been 
very wise in the conservative character of the work, and its directors deserve 
the thanks of all lovers of Chelsea in that they have preserved so large a 
proportion of the old buildings. 

Condition of repair. 

The houses are now in excellent repair. 

Historical notes. 

We have already stated that the five houses constituting Church Row or Prospect 
Place were built a little before the year 1689 on land which belonged to Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. In the early rate-list (1695) there is a marginal note against the names of the 
residents here : " In ye new row by ye Church." The names for this year are (giving 
the modern numbers) : — 

No. 59. James Salter and Edward Hatfield, 

No. 60. Mrs. Ann Shadwell, widow. 

No. 61. Mrs. Colley, widow. 

No. 62. Mrs. Cary, widow. 

No. 63. Mr. Atterbury. 
At the first house we have already noticed {vUe XXXI. — No. 1 8 Cheyne Walk) that 
James Salter had his famous coffee-house, which Faulkner tells us was opened in this very 
year, 1695. It was the corner house having a frontage to the road leading to the old 
Manor House, now Lawrence Street. Faulkner says that Salter was amerced £6 by the 
Court Leet in 1685 "for sufi^'ering the [river] wall opposite his dwelling to be ruinous," 
but the date should probably be 1695, as Dr. Atterbury and Mrs. Colley were amerced 
in the same way. Mr. Randall Davies quotes the following from the rate-book, which seems 
to refer to this matter : — " 1697, November 9. Memorandum that upon re-building 
that part of ye Thames wall that fronts ye five houses built on Sir Thomas Lawrence's 
ground the landlords of those houses did contribute a third part of the charge of re-building 
it not as being obliged to be at this or any part of the charge but making a free gift of so 
much to the Parish." 

Regarding Salter's residence here and the reputation which his coffee-house had 
already acquired, we cannot forbear to quote from the quaint description of Chelsea by 
John Bowack in 1 705. He says : "The place is noted for good conversation, and for many 
honorable worthy inhabitants, being not more remarkable for their titles and estates, em- 
ployments and abilities, than for their civility and condescension, and their kind and 
facetious tempers, living in perfect amity among themselves, and having a general meeting 
every day at a coffee-house near the Church, well known for the pretty collection of varieties 
in nature and art, some of which are very curious." Salter stayed here till i 707, and in 
the following year moved his establishment to the corner of Danvers Street. 

Of Mrs. Ann Shadwell Mr. Davies writes : " She was presumably the widow of Thomas 
Shadwell, the Laureate, whom Faulkner also places in Church Lane : and as we know that 
our row was in existence in 1689, it may be concluded that this was his house. He died 
in 1692, and was buried in the Church — or churchyard — adjoining, the funeral sermon 
being preached by Dr. Nicholas Brady. The only monument to him is in Westminster 
Abbey." His wife is said to have been on the stage before her marriage. 

"Dr. Francis Atterbury," as he is generally called in the rate-books, lived in No. 63 
until 1703, and in the following year he is to be found among the residents in Danvers 

h 85 


Street. This is where Swift found him when he came to live "over against Dr. Atterbury's 
house." He held a variety of Church appointments, was made Bishop of Rochester in 171 3, 
and finally died abroad after imprisonment in the Tower for furthering an attempt to restore 
the Stuarts. In the Dictionary of National Biography there is a good account of him, with 
references to some of his many distinguished friends. 

The subsequent residents in Nos. 62 and 63 are given below : — 

No. 62. 

No. 63. 


Mrs. Gary, Widow. 



Dr. Francis Atterbury. 


Mr. Piercehouse. 



Abigail Stevens. 



Mrs. Coppin. 


John Mountain. 


Mr. Dehaviour. 



Catherine Green. 



Mary Rich. 



John Vandenande. 


Mr. Brudenall. 


Capt. William Roberts. 



Benjamin Midleton. 


John Spralie. 



Edmund Drake. 



Joan Rhodes. 



Crew Offley. 


Anthony Sadath. 



William Soley. 



Nicholas Spriemont. 


Joseph Stonynaught. 



Robert Skyrin. 



Elizabeth Blinstone. 



Ann Boich. 



Joseph Stonynaught. 



Dorothy Capper. 



Rev. Richard Brooics. 



Margaret Midgley. 



Elizabeth Tuach. 


Thomas Hall. 



Jn. Jaques. 


Lady Bampfylde. 



Capt. Charles Dean. 



Mary Cole. 


Richard Sharpe. 



Mr. Howard. 



William Holt. 



James Miller. 



John Thorn or Thomm. 


Philip Bye. 



William Baleman. 



John Cologan. 



Ellison Elder. 

Crew Offley (younger son of John Offley of Madeley in the county of Stafford, and 
of Anne, daughter and heiress of John Crewe of Crewe in the county of Chester) married 
Margaret, only daughter of Sir Thomas Lawrence, and through his wife acquired the Chelsea 
property of the Lawrences. His elder brother, John Crew Offley, dropped his surname, 
and from him is descended the present Lord Crewe.* 

Lysons mentions the tomb of Joanna, wife of Christopher Rhodes, Esq., and daughter 
of Sir Oliver Butler, in the churchyard, under date 1753. 

Nicholas Spriemont, or Sprimont, was the man under whose direction the Chelsea 
China Manufactory became famous. The works were situated on the west side of Lawrence 
Street, close by, and Sprimont became sole proprietor from 1758 to 1769, when he sold 
the business to James Cox, from whom it was purchased by William Duesbury and James 

More recently Prospect Place has acquired interest from the residence in the corner 
house (No. 59) of Holman Hunt, who painted here his well-known picture, "The Light 
of the World." On Plate 92 the window of his studio is .marked with an X- In the 
Hospital (built 1888), which occupies the site of Nos. 59 to 61, is an engraving of the 
picture given by the artist and the inscription by himself : "To the Watchmen's little children 
from the painter, who made this picture in this corner house, Lawrence Street, Cheyne 
Walk, in the year 1850-3." In Mrs. Allingham's biography of her husband, William 
Allingham, an interesting description is given of a visit he made with Rossetti to Holman 
Hunt's lodging in 1 851, whither they went to spend an evening, but did not leave till 
3.0 a.m., when "dawn was broad upon the river and its trailing barges." 

* Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church. 



Bibliographical references. 

Alfred Beaver, Memorials of Old Cheisea (1892). 

Randall Davies, Chelsea Old Church (1904). 

Dictionary of 'National Biography (Atterbury, Shadwell, Salter, Holman Hunt). 

William Bemrose, Bozv, Chelsea, and Derby Porcelain. 

In the committee's ms. collection are — 

3289. Nos. 62 and 63 Cheyne Walk, view from south (photograph). 

3290. *Nos. 62 and 63.Cheyne Walk, another view (photograph). 

3291. *No. 62 Cheyne Walk, fireplace, ground floor (photograph). 

* Reproduced here. 



Abbott, Catherine - - - - - - - - - -27 

Abbott, George ----------25 

Abbott, Thomas - - - - - - - - 12, 14, 27 

Addis, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - - -61 

Allingham, William - - - - - - - - -86 

Alston, Edward --------__ go 

Alston, Sir Joseph, Bart. _______ -7^^ go 

Alston, r. ----------- 66 

Ambrose, William- - - - - - - - - -12 

Anne of Cleves --________ y2 

Archer, Paul --___-____ 62 

Arnold, Miles __________ 83 

Arnold, Richard _-____-___ 62 

Artaud, Stephen - - - - - - - - - -83 

Ash, Martha Windham - - - - - - - - -58 

Atkinson, Mr. ------____ 62 

Atterbury, Francis, Bishop of Rochester - - - - - 85, 86 

Attwood, Dr. Thomas - - - - - - - - -61 

Atwood, Mr. __________ 62 

Aubrey, Sir John, Bart. -_--_-___6 
Aufrere, Arabella ----------j 

Aufrere, George - - - - - - - - - -4) 7 

Aufrere, Sophia --___-____7 

Aust, George - - - - - - - - - -27 

Babington, the family of --------46 

Babington, Frances _________ ^^y 

Babington, Thomas _________ ^y 

Bainbridge, Charles _________ y^^ 

Balchen, Admiral Sir John - - - - - - 51, 52, 62 

Baleman, William - - - - - - - - -86 

Bampfylde, Lady - - - - - - - - - -86 

Banks, Sir Jacob - - - - - - - - - -25 

Banks, Sir Joseph - - - - - - - - -16, 20 

Barbes, Mr. --__--_-___ 62 
Barbet, Captain - - - - - - - - - -62 

Barham, Mrs. _--^. _______ 62 

Barodell, Mr. __________ 62 

Basset, Henry __________ 27 

Bates, Mr. ----_______ 80 

Bayford, the family of- - - - - - - ~59 

Bellie, Philip _________ ^o, ^9 

Bellie, Mrs. __________ ^q 

Bendall, Madame --_----___ 83 

Bennett, Mr. __________ 62 


Benzet, Stephen - - - - - - - - - -35 

Bernini --------___^^ 

Bertie, Charles -------___ 62 

" Bess of Hardwick "------___ ^q 

Bickerstaffe, John - - - - - - - - -I4 

Bigland, Ralph -----_____ ^g 

Bird, Mr. -------____ 62 

Blackwell, Alexander - - - - - - - -14, 17, 18 

Blackwell, Mrs. Elizabeth - - - - - - - 17, 18 

Blinstone, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - -86 

Bloomburg, Baron and Lady --_--___ ^o 
Blow, Mary - - - - _ - - - _ -11 

Blumenthal, Jaques ---______ rg 

Bockett, William - - - - _ - - _ _ -83 

Boich, Ann ---_______ 35 

Bolton, James ----______ ^. 

Bookey, Miss Anne --_______ 52 

Boswell, James ----______ ^^g 

Bouchier, Ann - - - - _ _ _ _ -27 40 

Bouchier, Mr. ----______. q 

Boughton, Edward ---______ gQ 

Bowes, Charlotte - - - - _ _ __ _ -co 

Bowes, Sarah - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ -ic 

Bowers & Co. ----______ go 

Brady, Dr. Nicholas - - - _ _ _ - _ -8c 
Braithwaite, John - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ -2C 

Bridges, Mary ----______ y. 

Brisac, Mary - - - _ _ _ __ _ -36 

Bristol, the Countess of ________ 24 

Brook, William - - - - _ _ _ _ _ -8^ 

Brooks, the Rev. Richard - - - - - - -74^35 

Brown, Sir John ----______ ^2 

Brudenall, Mr. - - - - _ _ _ _ _ -86 

Bryan, Sir Francis --_______ -,2 

Buccleugh, the Duke of --______ 62 

Burnaby, Sarah ----____- _-^. 

Burgess, Gidley ---_______ -7. 

Burn, Susannah ---_______. q 

Burne-Jones, Sir Edward - - - - - - - -c6 

Bushier. {See Bouchier.) 

Butler, Dr. Edward - - - - - _ _ 24, 27, 80 

Butler, Hon. Augustus ________ ^-, 

Butler, Sir Oliver - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -86 

Butler, the Rev. George, D.D. _______ ^g 

Butler, Robert --_______ 27 80 

Butler, Mrs. Robert _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ 24, 27 

Butler, the Rev. W^eedon - _ - - _ - 40, 44' 48 

Bye, Philip __________ 86 

Byng, Admiral John _________ r2 

Byng, Sir George --_-_____ ^2 



Calloway, Anne ----------83 

Calthorpe, Barbara -_-__--__^ 

Calthorpe, Henry, Lord- ____--__^ 

Calthorpe, Sir Henry ----__-__^ 

Camden, John --________ ^^ 

Campbell, Mr. ----------62 

Capper, Dorothy - - - - - - - - - -86 

Carbery, the Earl of. (See Vaughan.) 

Cardonnel, Mans. ----------63 

Carew, Dorothy -------- --^n 

Carew, Peter - - - - - - - - - "59 

Carey, Mrs. ------.-..^g 

Caroline, Queen - ------___6 

Cary, Henry, Lord Hunsdon ------- y^ 

Cary, Mrs. ----------85, 86 

Catherine of Braganza - - - - - - - - -58 

Cavendish, Elizabeth, Countess of Devonshire - - - - y^^ 80 

Cavendish, Sir William --------- ng 

Cavendish, William, Earl of Devonshire ------ no 

Chalmers, Colonel James - - - - - - - -27 

Chapman, Richard - - - - - - - - 55>58 

Charles L ----------- -73 

Charles II. - - - - - - - - - _ 8, 31 

Chauvin, Anthony -------__ yo 

Cheek, Robert ---------- ^n 

Chesterfield, Lord -----_-__ ^g 

Cheyne, Charles, Viscount Newhaven - - - - 15, 32, 73 

Cheyne, Lady Jane ------___ 80 

Cheyne, Lady Laetitia. (See Countess of Radnor.) 

Cheyne, William, Lord --------8, 34, 73 

Clare, Rev. Thomas - - - - - - - - -71 

Clare, Viscount ---------- ja 

Clark, Mr. - ----__-___ 62 

Clifford, the family of- - - - - - - - -27 

Cobb, Mary ---_-_-___ y^ 

Coggs, Mr. -------_-_ 63 

Coggs, Sarah ---_-_____ y^ 

Cole, Captain John - - - - - - - - -27 

Cole, Mary - - - - - - - _ _ _ -86 

Coleman, William - - - - - - - - - -83 

Collett, Rene ----------36 

Collett, Thomas - - - - - - _ - - 36 74 

Colley, Mrs. ----____-- 85 

Cologan, John - - - - - _ _ _ _ -86 

Connor, Mr. and Mrs. - - - - - - - - -27 

Conway, Alice ---_-___-- 40 
Cooke, William ----____-- y^ 

Cope, Anthony ----____- 62, 63 

Cope, Charles ------.---go 

Cope, Sir John, Bart., sen. - - - - - - - 62, 63 


Cope, Sir John, Bart., jun. --------63 

Coppin, Mrs. - - - - - - - - - -86 

Corderoy, Amelia ----------74 

Cotton, Sir Robert, Bart. - - - - - - - -63 

Cotton, R. S., sen. __-____-- 63 

Cotton, R. S., jun. _________ 63 

Cowdry, Amelia ----------74 

Cowper, Miss Harriet ---------63 

Cox, James - - - - - - - - - - -86 

Cramp, Robert _--___---- 74 

Crawford, David - - - - - - - - - -26 

Crawford, John - -- - - - - - - 24, 26 

Crewe, Earl of- - - - - - - - - -86 

Crewe, Anne - - - - - - - - - -86 

Crewe, John - - - - - - - - - -86 

Crispin, Mr, --______-- 63 

Crispe, Nicholas ----------40 

Crompton, Captain -______-- 63 

Crookenburg, Mary _-____-_- 80 

Cross, Mary _-_______- 27 

Cross, Samuel ---_____-_ ^2 

Culliford, Commissary ---------63 

Curtis, William ----__-_-- 20 

Cutt, Walter --____-___ 74 

da Costa (de Cost), Dr. - - - - - - - - -35 

Danby, the Earl of- - - - - - - - -15 

Dandridge, Francis - - - - - - - - -52 

Danvers of Swithland, the family of _____ 46^ ^y 

Danvers, Elizabeth _________ ^y 

Danvers, Sir John, Bart. -_-__-__ 4-7 

Danvers, Sir Joseph, Bart. --______ ^y 

Danvers, Lady Frances _--__--__ 4y 
Danvers, Lucy ____----__ 4y 

Danvers, Samuel ----__--__ 4y 

Darling, Bilby ----_-____ 27 

Davenant, Elizabeth - - - _ - - _ - -27 

Davies, Dorothy -_---__-_- 74 
Davis, George __--_-_-__^ 
Day, Mrs. -----___-__ 74 

Dean, Captain Charles - - - - - - - - -86 

Dean, Mr. ----------- St, 

Dehaviour, Mr. - - - - - - - - _ -86 

Delafountain, Mrs. - - - - _ - - -26 

Delasaye, Charles ---_______ 63 

Dennis, Mr. __________ 6'^ 

Denton, Capt. -_-_______ ^q 

Denton, Osborne and Mrs. - - - - - - - -59 


de Veil, Sir Thomas ___------ 63 

Devonshire, the Dukes of- - - - - - - "79 

Dodd, the Rev. William, D.D. - - - - - - - 48 

Doggett, Thomas - - - - - - - - - -13 

Dominiceti, Dr. Bartholomew _ _ _ _ _ 46, 47, 48, 49 

Doody, Samuel - - - - - - - - - -16 

d'Orsay, Count - - - -- - - - - "3^ 

Dove, James - - - - - - - - - -27 

Dove & Co. ---------- ^S 

Drake, Edmund - - - - - - - - - -86 

Drake, Sir Francis _________ 6^ 

Ducane, Peter ---------- y^ 

Dudley, John, first Duke of Northumberland - - - - -72 

Dudley, Jane, Duchess of Northumberland - - - - - 72 

Duesbury, William - - - - - - - - -86 

Duffield, Michael ----------32 

Dunbar, Captain ----------63 

Duncombe, Catherine --------- ^2 

Dunmore, John, second Earl of- - - - - - -6, 7 

Dyce, William - - - - - -- - - -40 

Edward VI. ---------- j2 

Edwards, Mr. ----------63 

Edwards, Mrs. __-----__ y^y 74 

Elder, Ellison -_----_--_ 86 

Elers, Carew _-----_-_- ^^ 

Elers, George ___--____- ^^ 

Elers, Peter- - - - - - - - - 58, 59, 63 

Elers, Peter, the Elder - - - - - - - - "59 

Eliot, George - - - - - - - - - -41 

Elizabeth, Queen - - - - - - - - 71,72,73,79 

Emblem, James --------- ^2, 63 

Errick, Mary -_-__--_-- 83 
Essex, the Earl of __---__-- 73 

Eyre, Kingsmill - - - - - - - - - -26 

Eyre, Susannah _-_----__ 26, 27 

Fane, Mary, Viscountess - - - - - - - -13 

Farrow, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - -61 

Fawcet, Thomas ----------63 

Ferryman, William _--_---_- 80 
Fielder, George - - - - - - - - - -83 

Fielding, Sir John ---------48 

Fielding, Thomas _________ -74 

Flower, Captain -- --------63 


Folkes, Martin ---------- 6^ 

Forbes, Dr. John - - - -- - - - - "59 

Forsyth, William - - - - - - - - - -2i 

Fortune, Robert - - - - - - - - - -21 

Fouace, Mr. -__-______ 63 

Fox, Stephen - - - - - - - - - -35 

Fraine, John ---_______ 32 

Franklin, Benjamin _________ 62 

Franks, Mr. --_______- 63 

Fraser, Robert -__-_____- 40 

Freer, Mrs. --_-_____- 63 

Fry, Mrs. Elizabeth ---------24 

Galton, Francis _________ -48 

Gape, Mrs. - - - - - - - - - - -15 

Garmson, Mrs. ---------- 6t, 

Gascoigne, Captain - - - - - - - - -63 

Gerard, John - - - - - - - - - -15 

Gibson, W. ----------- -74 

Gloucester, the Bishop of- - - - - - - "73 

Godwin, E. W. ---------- ^2 

Goodwin, Robert ----------73 

Goodyear, Moses --------- 62, 6^ 

Gordon, Lt.-Col. Sir Willoughby, Bart. - - - - - -4, 7 

Goss, Sir John - - - - - - - - - 37, 61 

Gough, the family of- - - - - - - -4, 6, 9 

Gough, Sir Henry, Bart. ------- 9, 40 

Gough, Lady ----_-__- 9, 40 

Gough, Sir Richard -------6, 9, 27, 40 

Gray, Jeremiah ----__-_- -^o 

Green, Catharine - - - - - - - - - -86 

Greenwell, John - - - - - - - - - 35) 74 

Gregory, Justice - - - - - - - - - -32 

Grey, Lady Jane ----------72 

Grey, the Hon. John ---------47 

Griffin, Lady Mary ____-__-- 27 

Grimfield, Baron - - - - - - - - - -26 

Guidott, G. F, - - - - - - - - - -61 

Guildford, Sir Edward - - - - - - - - -72 

Hadley, Mr. ---------- 6^ 

Hagar, Catharine - - - - - - - - - -27 

Hale, William ----------74 

Hales, W, - - - - - - - - - - -21 

Halford, Oakley ----------36 

Hall, Christopher- - - - - - - - - -63 


Hall, John __-------- 83 

Hall, Thomas ---------- 86 

Hamilton, James, Duke of ----- - 65, 66, 67, 73 

Hamilton, William, Duke of - -------73 

Hamilton, Rachel - - - - - - - - ->4 

Hamilton, the Rev. Dr. - - - - - - - -16 

Hamilton, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -14 

Handford, George - - - - - - - - -59 

Handford, N. ----------59 

Hankey, Sir Joseph and Lady -------74 

Harris, Thomas and Charles --------74 

Harrison, Mr. _-_---_--- 63 
Harrowbain, John -__--__-- 80 

Harwood, William --------- 80 

Hatfield, Edward - - - - - - - 62, 84, 85 

Haweis, the Rev. H. R. ----- - ^^^ 58, 59 

Hay, John ---------- 68, 74 

Haynes, John - - - - - - - - - 12, 18 

Haynes, Thomas ----------63 

Heath, James - - - - - - - - - -86 

Hemmings, F. - - - - - - - - - -31 

Henry VIII. --------- 65, 72 

Hepburn, William ---------26 

Herbert, Mary ----------27 

Herman, Dr. - - - - - - - - - -16 

Hervey, Henry Hill ---------74 

Hickman, Mr. ----------63 

Hill, Thomas --------- 24, 27 

Hill, William ---------- 74 

Holford, Mr. ----------63 

Holt, William ---------- 86 

Hopkey, Colonel John - - - - - - - - -25 

Hopson, Charles ----------6 

Horsmandon, Lucretia ---------74 

Howard, Mr. ----------86 

Howard, Miss -------- --63 

Howard, Catherine, Countess of Nottingham - - - - - 73 

Howard, Margaret, Countess of Nottingham - - - - - 73 

Howard, Charles, Earl of Nottingham - - - - - - 73 

Hoye, Mr. -----------63 

Huddleston, Joseph --------- ^o 

Hudson, William - - - - - - - - - -21 

Huguenin, Rhodolphus ---------4 

Humphrey, Lady ----------63 

Hunt, Holman - - - - - - - - -59, 86 

Hunt, Madam --------- 25, 26 

Hunt, William ----------74 

Hunter, Mr. ---------- 63 

Hunton, Mr. --___-_--- 63 

Hurnal, Thomas ----------52 


Inglis, Dr. --------- --63 

Irving, Edward - - - -- - - - - "59 

Jacob, James ---------- 6^ 

Jacob, Mary ----_--___ 6-^ 

James I.- - - - - - - - - - -73 

James V. (Scotland) - - - - - - - - -73 

Jaques, Jn. -----------86 

Jefferies, Admiral ---------- ^^ 

Jenkins, Captain ----------80 

Jephson, William ----------6 

Jocelyn, W. - - - - - - - - - -35 

Johnson, Dr. - - - - - - - - - 19, 48 

Jones, John __________ 63 

Jonson, Mr. -------___ 63 

Keith, James - - - - - - - - - -26 

Keightley, Martha - - - - - - - - -26 

Kempenfelt, Colonel - - - - - - - - -36 

Kempster, Christopher, sen. - - - - - - - -^3 

Kempster, Christopher, jun. - - - - - - - -12 

Kempster, Mrs. - - - - - - - - - -13 

Kempster, Mary - - - - - - - - - -12 

Kilmorey, Viscount ---_-____ ^2 

King, Eulalia - - - - - - - - - -18 

King, Dr. John - - - - - - - - -18, 77, 80 

King, Dr. William - - - - - - - - -19 

Kingsley, Charles - - - - - - - - - -59 

Kingsley, Henry - - - - - - - - - -59 

Kinnard, Mr. --_-_-_-__ 63 

Kirby, Elizabeth ----------74 

Kynaston, Thomas - - - - - - - - -52 

Ladbroke, Ann ---------- j^ 

Ladbroke, Richard _-_-_-___ y^ 

Lambert, Mrs. ----------63 

Lane, Anne __________ y^ 

Lanesborough, the Earl of- - - - - - - -47 

Lantware, Mrs. - - - - - - - - - -27 

Lathwell, Miss ----------63 

Latton, William - - - - - - - - - -32 

Lawrence, Thomas - - - - - - - - -84 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas -------- 84, 85 

Lawson, Cecil G. - - - - - - - - - -52 

Lawson, Malcolm ----------^2 


Lawson, F. W. - - - - - - - - - -52 

Lawson, William - - - - - - - - - -52 

Legg, Captain _----_-___ 63 

le Novo, Edward ----------32 

Leopold, Mr. -----_____ 63 

le Punch, Mr. ---------- St, 

Lesly, Captain _-_--_____ 63 

le Tellier, Augustine - - - - - - - - -27 

Levi, Mr. --------___ 63 

le Vin, Moses -__---____ 27 

Lewis, Erasmus -------___ 43 

Lherondell, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -63 

Lillie, Sir John Scott - - - - - - - - -32 

Lindley, Dr. - - - - - - - - - -21 

Linnaeus - - - - - - - - - - 17? 19 

Litdeton, Rev. Adam, D.D. --------80 

Littleton, Sir Thomas ---------63 

Lloyd, Mr. -----_____ 63 

Loane, Catherine - - - - - - - - - 35? 3^ 

Lolley, Sir Thomas and Lady - - - - - - -14 

Lombe, Sir Thomas and Lady --_____ 24 

Longley, Sir Henry - - - - - - - - -21 

Lowe, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -14 

Lowfield, Ann - - - - - - - - - -26 

Lowfield, Thomas - - - - - - - - -26 

Lowfield, William - - - - - - - - -26 

Lowrey, Frank - - - - - - - - - S^y S9 

Luffan, Mr. - - - - - - -.- - - 6;^ 

Luttrell, Narcissus -__--___ ^o, 62 

Lydiard, Mr. _-__-_____ 63 

Maclise, Daniel --------- 3^^ 40 

Manger, Joseph --------- ^2, 74 

Mann, Sir Horace - - - - - - - - -19 

Mann, Robert ---------- ^2 

March, Thomas - - - - - - - - - -13 

Marisal, Mary - - - - - - - - - - 3S 

Martin, Captain ---------- ^2 

Martin, Councillor __-_-___- 63 

Martin, Dr. ---------- S^ 

Martyn, John - - - - - - - - - 18, 19 

Marshall, the Rev. --------- St, 

Marshall, Gilbert ___---___ 40 

Mary, Queen of Scots --------- jg 

Mason, Mr. _____-_--_ 63 

Mathew, Madame - - - - - - - - -25 

May, Mr. ---------- 6^ 

Mazarin, Hortense, Duchess of- - - - - - -26 


McDonald (or McDonnell), John -------80 

McDonald, Major __------_ 63 

Medley, George ..-------y^ 

Meredith, George ____---_- ^^ 

Merideth, Sir William, Bart. --------74 

Merrick, Dr. Montague _---_-_- 63 

Metcalf, Catharine __-----_- 74 

Metcalf, James ----------74 

Meyrick, Adam - - - - - - - - - -35 

Middelton, Thomas - - - - - - - - -61 

Midleton, Benjamin - - - - - - - - -86 

Midgley, Margaret - - - - - - - - -86 

Miller, James - - - - - - - - - -86 

Miller, Joseph - - - - - - - - - 18, 19 

Miller, Phillip - - - - - - - - 12, 17, 19 

Millward, Mrs. __----_--- 63 

Milward, Marian ---------- 26 

Mitchell, John __----_-_- 14 

Mitchell, Thomas - - - - - -- - -14 

Mitchell & Whitchurch, Messrs. -------80 

Molesworth, Sir John --------- 6^ 

Monsey, Dr. Messenger - - - - - - - -32 

Monson, Sir John _-_-____- 73 

Monson, William, Lord --------73 

Montague, the Hon. Captain Wm. - - - - - - 63 

Moore, Charles ----------74 

Moore, Harrington ---____-- 30 

Moore, Thomas - - - - - - - - - -21 

Moray, James, Earl of- - - - - - - - -73 

More, Sir Thomas __-___-_- 72 

Morewood, Elizabeth ---------47 

Morgan, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -15 

Morris, John _-_-____-- 26 

Morrison, John ----------83 

Morrison, William - - - - - - - - 38, 40 

Mountain, John -----__-. -86 

Mulden, Anne - - - - - - - - - -35 

Munday, Joseph ----------83 

Munden, Vice-Admiral ---------62 

Munden, Mr. ----_-___- 63 

Musgrove, Lady ----------26 

Myddelton, Dr. Starkey- -______- 63 

Neale, James - - - - - - - - - -27 

Needham, Francis - - - - - - - - -32 

Neild, James --_____ ---44 

Neild, John Camden ---____- 40, 44 


Newark, John - - - - - - - - - -25 

Newcastle, William, Duke of- - - - - - - 6, 73 

Newdigate, Francis _________ -72 

Newman, John Christian and Mrs. -------59 

Newton, Sir Isaac- - - - - - - - - -i? 

Nicholas, Susannah ________ y^^ 83 

Nichols, Mr. ---------- 6^ 

Norfolk, the Duke of ---------7 

Norman, Mrs. Mary ---------32 

Norman, " Mrs." ----------32 

Norris, George ___---___ 23, 25 
Norris, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -61 

Northcliffe, Lady - - - - - - - - -63, 83 

Northmore, Thomas ____^--__74 

Northumberland, the Duke of. See Dudley. 

Noy, Mr. ----------- 6^ 

Oakley, Edward - - - - - - - - - -i? 

Oakley, Vincent - - - - - - - - - -36 

Offley, Crew ---------- S6 

Offley, John _____---- 32, 86 

Offley, John Crew --------- S6 

Offley, Margaret ----------32 

O'Hara, Capt. -____----- 63 

Orford, Earls of. See Russell, and Walpole. 

Ormonde, the Duchess of------- 24, 26 

Orton, Sarah - - - - - - - - - -27 

Osborne, Captain John - - - - - - - - -27 

Osgood, Mr. _______ ---63 

Palmer, John - - - - - - - - - -26 

Palmer, Mrs. __________ 27 

Palmer, Ralph __________ 63 

Palmer, Ralph, jun. _________ 63 

Pape, Richard __-___-___ 3^ 
Parr, Catherine __________ 72 

Parrett, William - - - - - - - - - -36 

Paulet, Charles, Marquis of Winchester ______ 9 

Paulin, Elizabeth __________ 74 

Paulin, Thomas __________ 74 

Pawlett, William - - - - - - - - - -25 

Peagu, Mr. __________ 63 

Pearne, Robert __---_-___ 63 
Pelham, Sir Thomas (Lord) _------- 24 

Pemberton, Maria _____-___9 

Pemberton, Thomas --------- ^ 

Pennant, Mr. __________ 63 


Pennyman, Abigail ---------80 

Pepys - - - - - - - - - - - ^3i 3^ 

Petiver, James - - - - - - - - - -16 

Peyton, Sir Yelverton, Bart. -------- 6^ 

Phene, Dr. ----------66, 77 

Philip, Constance ----------^2 

Philip, John Birnie __-----__ ^2 

Philips, John ___-_--___ §3 

Phillips, Griffith ---------- y^ 

Phipson, Joseph ----------40 

Piercehouse, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -86 

Piggott, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -16 

Pigot, Thomas - - - - - - - - - -32 

Pigou, Jane - - - - - - - -- - -44 

Pigou, John __-_---_- ^^^ 61 

Pilman, Mr. Cuthbert - - - -'- - - - -63 

Pinfold, Charles - - - - - - - - - -83 

Pinfold, Mary ----------14 

Powell, Mr. ----------- 48 

Pratt, Richard - - - - - - - - - -16 

Price, David - - - - - - - - - -26 

Price, Gryffid ---------- ^^ 

Priest, Mary - - - - - - - - - -35 

Prince, John --___-_-__ 80 

Plimmer, H. G. - - - - - - - - - 56, 59 

Plymouth, the Countess of- - - - - - - "73 

Pugin, Augustus ----------30 

Putland, George ---------- 6^ 

Putland, John _------___ 25 

Putland, Thomas ----------25 

Pybuss, Mary --_--_-__- 80 

Radnor, the Earl of- - - - - - - - 3Ij32 

Radnor, Laetitia Isabella, Countess of - - - - -3I) 32, 73 

Ranby, Dr. John ---------- 6 

Rand, Issaac - - - - - - - - - 17, 18 

Randall, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - -14 

Randall, John - - - - - - - - - -14 

Ranelagh, the Earl of ---------6 

Raper, Catherine ----------74 

Ravenel, Mr. ____--_-__ 63 

Rawling, Sir Benjamin - - - - - - - - -18 

Ray, Captain ____--____ 63 

Ray - - - - - - - - - - - 16, 17 

Read, Edward - -.- - - - - - - -14 

Reid, Captain --__--____ 63 

Reid, Mr. ----------- 6^ 

Reynolds, Mr. _-__--___- 63 


Reynolds, Sir Joshua ---------^ 

Rhodes, Christopher - - - - - - - - -86 

Rhodes, Joanna ----------86 

Rice, Mr. Spring - - - - - - - - - -21 

Rich, Mary __---____- 86 

Richard, Mr. ----------35 

Richards, Joseph - - - - - - - - - -18 

Riley, Margaret ----------40 

Ripley, Thomas ----------6 

Roberts, Captain William - - - -- - - -86 

Rogers, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -14 

Rogers, Elizabeth ----------40 

Rogers, Forde - - - - - - - - - -83 

Rogers, Richard ----------9 

Rossetti, D. G. - - - - - - - - 56, 57, 59, 86 

Rossetti, William ----------59 

Rothery, the Rev.- - - - - - - - - -27 

Roulson, Mrs. ----------63 

Rowlandson - - - - - - - - - -13 

Rowlatt, William - - - - - - - - - -'74 

Rowntree, Thomas ---------y^ 

Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford --_-__-6 
Russian Ambassador, the - - - - - - - -52 

Rutter, Mr. -_------__ 63 

Ryall, Henry Thomas - - - - - - - - -52 

Rysbrach, Michael - - - - - - - - -17 

Sadath, Anthony - - - - - - - - - -86 

Salter, James (Don Saltero) - - - - - -59, 61, 62, 85 

Salter, May and John ---------62 

Sandys, Lord - - - - - - - - -65, 72 

Scot, Major -__-___-_- 63 

Seannenot, Mons. ---------- 63 

Selden, Mrs. - - - - - - - - - -61 

Selwyn, Mr. ___--_____ 63 

Serecold, John ____-__--- 63 

Seymour, Jane __---__--- -72 

Seymour, Sir Thomas ---------'72 

Shadwell, Mrs. Ann - - - - - - - - -85 

Sharpe, Mr. _-__-_-__- 63 

Sharpe, Richard - - - - - - - - --86 

Sharpe, Thomas - - - - - - - - - -27 

Shaw, Colonel Daniel - - - - - -- - -26 

Shelley, John __---__-_- 27 

Shiffner, William, Henry and Mary- -__-__ -74 

Shepherd, Keith - - - - - - - - - -26 

Sherard, James - - - - - - - - -21 

Shortgrove, Mrs. ----------80 


Shrewsbury, Earls of. See Talbot. 
Sidney, Sir Henry ___------ 72 

Skene, Colonel Philip --------- Z"^ 

Skinner, John --------- -80 

Skyrin, Robert ---------- 86 

c, c- TT Tj , ( 16, 17, 18, 21, 34, 35> 45.46, 5O5 

Sloane, Sir Hans, Bart. - - - | ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

Smith, Mr. ---------- 63 

Smith, John ---------- 1'^ 

Smith, Admiral William Henry - - - - - - -37 

Smollett, T. ---------- 63 

Smyth, Captain ------ ----^Z 

Soane, Sir John - - - - - - - - -35 4>5)7 

Soley, William - - - - - - - - - -86 

Somerset, Anne, Duchess of- - - - - - - 72, 73 

Somerset, Seymour, Duke of- - - - - - - ~ 1'^ 

Spencer, James ---------- 80 

Spencer, Mary ----------44 

Spottiswood, Alexander - - - - - - - - "5^ 

Sprake, John - - - - - - - - - -86 

Sprimont, Nicholas - - - - - - - - -86 

Stanhope, Sir Edward --------- ^1 

Stanhope, John, Lord -------- 72, 73 

Steele, Richard ----------62 

Stedwell, Jane - - - - - - - - - -3^ 

Stevens, Abigail - - - - - - - - - -86 

Stewart (Stuart), Lady Margaret - - - - - - -73 

Stiffkin, Susannah - - - - - - - - -27 

Stonnard, Jonathan ---------80 

Stonynaught, Joseph - - - - - - - - -86 

Storey, Miss ----------63 

Storey, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - - -26 

Storey, Frances ----------26 

Storey, Francis - - - - - - - - - -26 

Stratton, Rebecca - - - - - - - - - -35 

Suply, Mr. ---------- 63 

Sutherland, the Earl of - - - - - - 3^, 5^, 63 

Swinburne, Algernon Charles --------59 

Sydenham, Dorothy ---------83 

Symons, William ---------63 

Talbot, Francis, fifth Earl of Shrewsbury ------ 79 

Talbot, George, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury - - - - - 79 

„ „ sixth Earl of Shrewsbury - - - - - 79 

Tassel, Hubert ---------- 63 

Tate, Mr. and Mrs. ---------80 

Tate, Benjamin - - - - - - - - - -2,7 

Taxsara, Sarah - - - - - - - - - -^3 


Temple, Henry, Viscount Palmerstone ------ y 

Tench, Mrs. ___--_--__ 6-^ 

Tey, John -----------83 

Tey, Thomas - - - - - - - - - -83 

Tey, Rose - - - - - - - - - - -83 

Thiselton-Dyer, Sir W. T. - - - - - - - -21 

Thompson, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - -27 

Thompson, Mathew - - - - - - - - -32 

Thompson, William - - - - - - - - -27 

Thornhill, Sir James - - - - - - - - -39 

Thorn, John ---------- 86 

Townshend, Viscount and Lady - -- - - - -26 

Tradescant, John - - - - - - - - - -15 

Tuach, Elizabeth - - - - - - - - - -86 

Tublay, Captain and Miss --_-___- 63 
Turlington, Robert -----_-__ 80 

Turner, John __--______ 26 

Turner, Dr. William - - - - - - - - - ^S 

Upton, Ambrose ----------27 

Umfreville, Mrs. A. M. - - - - - - - -63 

Vanbrugh, Sir John - - - - - - - - 4, 5, 58 

Van Rozen, Dr. Adrian - - - - - - - - -19 

Vandenande, John - - - - - - - - -86 

Vaughan, John, Earl of Carbery - - - - - - -6, 8 

Vaux, W. S. Wright ---------40 

Verney, the Hon. Mrs. - - - - - - - - 63, 83 

Vernon, Francis ---------- 73 

Vyvyan, Abel _---__---- 83 

Vyvyan, Sarah - - - - - - - - - -83 

Walker, John _____----- y^^ 

Waller, Charles - - - - - - - - - -14 

Walpole, Edward - - - - - - - - - -19 

Walpole, Horace, Earl of Orford - - - - - - 6, 19 

Walpole, Lady ---------- ^ 

Walpole, Sir Robert, Earl of Orford - - - - 4, 5, 6, 9, 26 

Walthall, Anne ----------80 

Ward, Elizabeth ----------83 

Warner, Mrs. - - - - - -■- - - -63 

Warner, Mrs. Vere ---------^^ 

Warrington, Arabella - - - - - - - - -83 

Warwick, John, Earl of - - - - - - - -72 

Waterhouse, Mary ---------35 


Watts, John - - - - - - - - - -i6 

Webster, Mrs. Penelope - - - - - - - -27 

West, Captain ----------63 

West, Vice-Admiral Temple -------- ^2 

Wheeler, Mr. - - - - - - - - - -61 

Wheeler, James Lowe ---------20 

Wheeler, Thomas _________ 20 

Whistler, J. M. - - - - - - - - - - 52 

Whitchurch & Co. __---__-_ 80 

Whitfield, William and Mrs. - - - - - - - -13 

Whitworth, Robert _________ y^ 

Wilkinson, Richard - - - - - - - - -83 

Williams, Archdeacon _-___---- 24 

Williamson, the Rev. Thomas - - - - - - -26 

Willis, Henry - - - - - _._ _ _ -74 

Wills, Hannah __--____-_ 83 

Wilmer, Dr. John - - - - - - -18, 19, 26, 63 

Wilson, Anne --_--___-_ 80 
Wilson, Dr. __-_______^ 

Wilson, Samuel ____-___-_ 63 

Winchester, the Bishops of------- 65, 73 

Windham, Sir Francis - - - - - - -18, 24, 26, 63 

Windham, Joseph - - - - - - - - -13 

Windham, Lady Hester - - - - - - - -26 

Wisby, Miss __________ 40 

Wiseham, Mrs. --_-______ 63 

Wiseman, Catherine _________ y^ 

Wishart, Admiral ---------_ ^2 

Witt, John ---------- ^o, SS 

Woodcock, Madame Deborah- ______ y^^ 80 

Woodcock, Robert _________ 80 

Woodis, the Rev. Richard - - - - - - - -13 

Woodstock, Thomas of ________ 72 

Woodward, Charles - - - - - - - - -26 

Wortley, Sir Richard - - - - - - - - -80 

Wray, Martha --__-__-_- 80 
Wren, Sir Christopher ------- ^, 23, 25, 58 

Wych, Jermyn _________ 24, 27 

Wye, Miss ----_------ 63 

Wynn, Captain Leonard ________ ^2 

Wynn, Captain Reginald ________ ^2 

Yarborough, the Earl of - - - - - - - -4j7 

York, Edward, Duke of ________ 48 

Zinzendorf, Count - - - - - - - - I9>43 



Published in England by the Committee 
for the Survey ofthe Memorials of Greater 
London, 23 Old Queen Street, Westmin- 
ster, S.W. ; and to be obtained from B. 
T. Batsford, 94 High Holborn, W.C. 
600 copies, of which this is No. -i 1 4 














PARADISE ROW (Before 1866) 


THE RIVER, 1720 


(GOUGH HOUSE), 1908 




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Nos. 19 TO 26 CHEYNE WALK, 












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Nos. 59 TO 63 CHEYNE WALK 


Nos. 59 TO 63 CHEYNE WALK 


Nos. 62 AND 63 CHEYNE WALK, 1909 


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